DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

That noble might have sub nobles with the people

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That noble might have sub nobles, with the people actually working the land in some extreme cases being serfs-- slaves who literally were part of the property of the noble. Most national governments have actively discouraged customary tenure systems in an attempt to encourage economic growth. The assumption--largely disproved by recent experience--was that private
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ownership would better foster the investment and productivity increases that modern states depend on for growth. In Indonesia, for example, the central government has often ignored traditional forest tenure (ownership) arrangements when selling timber concessions to private logging companies, incurring the anger of local residents who have lost use of the forest without compensation. Reciprocity is the exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value between two parties, usually surrounded by ritual and ceremony. It is also the return of gifts, services and emotions. The modes of exchange beyond the household take place symmetrically, often at the kin group level. This type of system is characteristic of food-foraging groups. In generalized reciprocity, neither the value of the gift nor the time of repayment is specified . This is in contrast to balanced reciprocity, in which the giving and receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of delivery. The Kula Ring is a ceremonial exchange of shell ornaments that takes place on the Islands of New Guinea . Red shell ornaments are traded in a clockwise direction around the islands while white ornaments are traded in a counter clockwise direction. This practice is also known as the Kula Circle. Barter is one form of negative reciprocity in which scarce goods from one group are exchanged for desirable goods from another group. In negative reciprocity, the giver tries to get the better of the exchange, and the ultimate form of negative reciprocity is simply to take something by force. Silent trade is a form of barter in which no verbal communication takes places. Strong centralized political organization is necessary for redistribution to take place. This is a form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place and are distributed again, such as the taxation system of the United States. In some societies prestige derives from the giving away or distribution of valuables. In the West, conspicuous consumption (a term coined by Thorstein Veblen) involves the display of wealth by its owner for social prestige. Market exchange involves the buying and selling of goods and services with the prices set by supply and demand. Typically, but not always, it involves money-—anything used to make payments for goods and services as well as to measure their value. Noting a distinction between the formal and informal sectors of the market economy, Haviland defines informal
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That noble might have sub nobles with the people actually...

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