In section 2 we illustrate the indeterminate nature

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and integration activity. In Section 2, we illustrate the indeterminate nature of design, elaborating on the unique, complex, and "wicked" nature of design challenges. From the innovation field, we also show the importance of understanding the subjective character of "capability" in meeting design challenges, emphasizing the importance of human knowledge, skills, experience, and capacity for learning. Section 3 examines some of the ideas and insights from leading American scholars concerned with design appreciation, © 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Design Issues: Volume 28, Number 1 Winter 2012 1 In a recent conference at Weatherhead School of Management (June 2010), key speakers (e.g., Buchanan and Collopy) criticized the term design "thinking" as too centered (by implication) on rational, left/logical brain activity. Design "sensing" was offered as one possible alternative. The two terms are used here interchangeably, along with design appreciation. 2 M. Hobday, A. Boddington, and A. Grantham, "An Innvovation Perspective on Design: Part 1," Design lssues27A (Summer 2011), 5-15. 3 NESTA, The Innovation Index: Measuring the UK's Investment in Innovation and Its Effects (London: National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts, 2009). m This content downloaded from 176.119.249.2 on Wed, 23 May 2018 15:32:33 UTC All use subject to
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4 H. W. Rittel and M. M. Webber, "Dilemmas in General Theory of Planning," Policy Sciences 4:2 (1973), 155-69. 5 J. Conklin, Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding of Wicked Problems (London: Wiley, 2005). 6 A. Hatchuel, "Towards Design Theory and Expandable Rationality: the Unfinished Programme of Herbert Simon," Journal of Management and Governance 5:3-4 (2002), 260-73. 7 We return to the issue of design capabil- ity in more detail in Section 2. while Section 4 tries to relate modern design sensing to the broader context of human-centered approaches to management. Finally, we conclude by suggesting some of the benefits that could arise from a more integrated design/ innovation approach that combines insights and methods from both areas. Section 1: From Design to Design Thinking: Antecedents to Design Thinking The interpretation of design as a general problem-solving activity has a long-standing tradition, rooted in ideas from social planning theorists - notably Horst Rittel, who formulated the notion of "■ wicked problems/'4 Wicked problems are seemingly intractable, knotted clusters of interdependent problems or challenges, occurring under conditions of uncertainty and having multiple potential solutions. Conklin recently applied issue-based information systems to wicked problems in design through the application of collaborative, social information and communication technologies.5 Similarly, Armand Hatchuel takes Herbert Simon's work on design science and bounded rationality as a starting point for approaching wicked problems, and from there proposes a new, contemporary appreciation for design - not as a rational problem-solving activity, but as a socially based, solutions-generating process that is capable
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