January 1876 japan sends modern warships to kanghwa

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January 1876: Japan sends modern warships to Kanghwa demanding an apology & treat Treaty of Kanghwa (Feb 26, 1876) x Korea is an independent state x 3 ports open to the Japanese x Extraterritoriality for Japanese citizens 1881: Korea signs unequal treaties with US, Britain and Germany ¾ An emerging imperialist Mentalite strategy of Euro-American traders, bankers, industrialists: x Maximized personal profits by exploiting sales to overseas markets x Buy cheap raw materials and foodstuffs to send home State policy
x Acquire colonies, protectorates, and spheres of influence to augment wealth, power, and prestige ¾ 1886: the journalist and historian, Tokutomi Soh ō, accepts Herbert Spencer’s view that all advanced industrial societies are peaceful and nonaggressive by nature ¾ This period is not a peaceful period, wars, colonies and competitions ¾ 1892: Soho change his attitude: imperial expansion presents J apan’s last chance to earn the respect of the Great Powers, ensure its security and survival, and bring civilization to other countries in East Asia ¾ Following treaty of Kanghwa Value of Japanese commodities shipped to Korea increases 4 times ¾ Insurrection of 1882 The regent (Taewongon ), capitalizing on dismissed old soldiers who are victims of the queen’s military reforms, incites them to attack the palace, thus regaining power China, fearing Japanese punitive action, arrests the regent and detains him in China ¾ Korea in the 1880s Korean conservative faction (enforce exclusionist policy & keep out foreigners VS. Progressives led by Kim Ok- kyun (follow Japan’s model and Westernize ) ¾ Kapsin coup 甲申政變 (1884) Attempt by the modernization supporters (Kaehwadang “progressive Party”) to seize power and overturn foreign influence at the court of King Kojung December 4, 1884 The King taken to the Japanese embassy Kaehwadang (“progressive Party”) seize power and form a new government Resident General Yuan Shikai ends the coup and restore King Kojong Korean government controlled by Chinese Resident General of Korea Japanese minister burns the Japanese legation and flees Some plotters are killed, others escape to Japan ¾ April 18, 1885: Tianjin Convention Preoccupied with Sino-French war Neither Japan or China would station troops in Korea without giving prior notification Korean government to pay indemnity for loss of lives and property and to the Japanese ¾ 1885: Major Klemens Meckel, German advisor to Japan’s Army War Colle ge, characterizes Korea as “ a dagger pointed at the heart of Japan ¾ The Tonghak Rebellion (Eastern learning)
Japanese exports of rice do not benefit Koreans Despite droughts Korean peasants are heavily taxed Strong anti-foreigner 1894: Tonghak rebellion; a religious uprising rallying peasants to improve conditions for Korea’s poor and toleration for their religion x King of Korea asks China for assistance x China sends 3,000 troops without informing Japan, violating the Tianjin convention x Japan added extra expedition forces ¾ Sino-Japanese War, 1894-95

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