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January 1876: Japan sends modern warships to Kanghwa demanding an apology & treat Treaty of Kanghwa (Feb 26, 1876) xKorea is an independent state x3 ports open to the Japanese xExtraterritoriality for Japanese citizens 1881: Korea signs unequal treaties with US, Britain and Germany ¾An emerging imperialist Mentalite strategy of Euro-American traders, bankers, industrialists: xMaximized personal profits by exploiting sales to overseas markets xBuy cheap raw materials and foodstuffs to send home State policy
xAcquire colonies, protectorates, and spheres of influence to augment wealth, power, and prestige ¾1886: the journalist and historian, Tokutomi Sohō, accepts Herbert Spencer’s view that alladvanced industrial societies are peaceful and nonaggressive by nature ¾This period is not a peaceful period, wars, colonies and competitions ¾1892: Soho change his attitude: imperial expansion presents Japan’s last chance to earn therespect of the Great Powers, ensure its security and survival, and bring civilization to other countries in East Asia¾Following treaty of Kanghwa Value of Japanese commodities shipped to Korea increases 4 times ¾Insurrection of 1882 The regent (Taewongon), capitalizing on dismissed old soldiers who are victims of the queen’s military reforms, incites them to attack the palace, thus regaining powerChina, fearing Japanese punitive action, arrests the regent and detains him in China ¾Korea in the 1880s Korean conservative faction (enforce exclusionist policy & keep out foreigners VS. Progressives led by Kim Ok-kyun (follow Japan’s model and Westernize) ¾Kapsin coup 甲申政變(1884) Attempt by the modernization supporters (Kaehwadang—“progressive Party”) to seizepower and overturn foreign influence at the court of King Kojung December 4, 1884 The King taken to the Japanese embassy Kaehwadang (“progressive Party”) seize power and form a new governmentResident General Yuan Shikai ends the coup and restore King Kojong Korean government controlled by Chinese Resident General of Korea Japanese minister burns the Japanese legation and flees Some plotters are killed, others escape to Japan ¾April 18, 1885: Tianjin Convention Preoccupied with Sino-French war Neither Japan or China would station troops in Korea without giving prior notification Korean government to pay indemnity for loss of lives and property and to the Japanese ¾1885: Major Klemens Meckel, German advisor to Japan’s Army War College, characterizes Korea as “a dagger pointed at the heart of Japan”¾The Tonghak Rebellion (Eastern learning)
Japanese exports of rice do not benefit Koreans Despite droughts Korean peasants are heavily taxed Strong anti-foreigner 1894: Tonghak rebellion; a religious uprising rallying peasants to improve conditions for Korea’s poor and toleration for their religionxKing of Korea asks China for assistance xChina sends 3,000 troops without informing Japan, violating the Tianjin convention xJapan added extra expedition forces ¾Sino-Japanese War, 1894-95