HSC 3102 Exam 1 Review Guide.docx

Youth risk behavior surveillance system national

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Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System National Health Care Surveys Descriptive vs analytic studies (p. 78-80) Descriptive- an epidemiological study that describes a disease with respect to person, place, and time Analytic- an epidemiological study aimed at testing hypotheses
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Observational study (p. 81) An analytic, epidemiological study in which the investigator observes the natural course of events, noting exposed and unexposed subjects and disease development Cross-sectional study a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time Case/control study A study that compares patients who have a disease or outcome of interest (cases) with patients who do not have the disease or outcome (controls), and looks back retrospectively to compare how frequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determine the relationship between the risk factor and the disease Cohort study form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time Experimental (p. 81) Analytic studies in which the investigator allocates exposure or intervention and follows development of disease Randomization randomly allocating the experimental units across the treatment groups Blinding information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known Placebo (p. 81) A blank treatment Criteria for causation (p. 82) Strength Consistency Specificity Temporality Biological plausibility Chapter 4 Communicable disease vs Noncommunicable diseases (p. 91) Communicable- an illness caused by some specific biological agent or its toxic products that can be transmitted from an infected person, animal, or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host Non Communicable- disease that cannot be transmitted from infected host to susceptible host Acute vs chronic (p. 91-92) Acute- peak of severity of symptoms occurs and subsides within 3 months and the recovery of those who survive is usually complete
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Chronic- symptoms continue longer than 3 monts and, in some cases, for the remainder of one’s life; recovery is slow and sometimes incomplete Communicable disease model (“epi triangle”) (p. 92-93) The minimal requirements for the occurrence and spread of communicable disease in a population- agent, host, and environment make three corners of triangle Biological agents of disease (p. 92) The cause of the disease or health problem Chain of infection (p. 93) A model to conceptualize the transmission of a communicable disease from its source to a susceptible host Direct vs indirect transmission (p. 93) Direct- the immediate transfer of an infectious agent by direct contact between infected and susceptible individuals Indirect- communicable disease transmission involving an intermediate step Vehicles vs vectors (p. 94)
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