Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System■National Health Care Surveys●Descriptive vs analytic studies (p. 78-80)○Descriptive- an epidemiological study that describes a disease with respect to person, place, and time○Analytic- an epidemiological study aimed at testing hypotheses
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●Observational study (p. 81)○An analytic, epidemiological study in which the investigator observes the natural course of events, noting exposed and unexposed subjects and disease development●Cross-sectional study○a type of observational studythat analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset,at a specific point in time●Case/control study○A study that compares patients who have a disease or outcome of interest (cases) with patients who do not have the disease or outcome (controls), and looks back retrospectively to compare how frequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determine the relationship between the risk factor and the disease●Cohort study○form of longitudinal studythat sample a cohort(a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-sectionat intervals through time●Experimental (p. 81)○Analytic studies in which the investigator allocates exposure or intervention and follows development of disease●Randomization○randomly allocatingthe experimental units across the treatment groups●Blinding○information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known●Placebo (p. 81)○A blank treatment●Criteria for causation (p. 82)○Strength○Consistency○Specificity○Temporality○Biological plausibilityChapter 4●Communicable disease vs Noncommunicable diseases (p. 91)○Communicable- an illness caused by some specific biological agent or its toxic products that can be transmitted from an infected person, animal, or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host○Non Communicable- disease that cannot be transmitted from infected host to susceptible host●Acute vs chronic (p. 91-92)○Acute- peak of severity of symptoms occurs and subsides within 3 months and the recovery of those who survive is usually complete
○Chronic- symptoms continue longer than 3 monts and, in some cases, for the remainder of one’s life; recovery is slow and sometimes incomplete●Communicable disease model (“epi triangle”) (p. 92-93)○The minimal requirements for the occurrence and spread of communicable disease in a population- agent, host, and environment make three corners of triangle●Biological agents of disease (p. 92)○The cause of the disease or health problem●Chain of infection (p. 93)○A model to conceptualize the transmission of a communicable disease from its source to a susceptible host●Direct vs indirect transmission (p. 93)○Direct- the immediate transfer of an infectious agent by direct contact between infected and susceptible individuals○Indirect- communicable disease transmission involving an intermediate step●Vehicles vs vectors (p. 94)○
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