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Diff: 4 Page Ref: 5399) In comparison with the renal cortex, fluid in the proximal tubule is hyperosmotic.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 53910) Urea diffuses from the collecting duct into the medullary interstitial fluid maintaining to the medullary interstitial fluid osmotic gradient.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 54111) The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to water.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 54012) Osmolarity of the fluid in the descending limb of the loop of Henle is greater than the osmolarity of the fluid in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle at any given level in the renal medulla.Diff: 5 Page Ref: 54113) The maximum osmolarity of urine is 1200 mOsm to 1400 mOsm.Diff: 3 Page Ref: 54314) The minimum osmolarity of urine is 300 mOsm.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 54323
15) The obligatory water loss refers to the lowest volume of urine that must be produced to eliminate solutes.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 54316) Antidiuretic hormone increases water reabsorption by increasing the permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct to water.Diff: 3 Page Ref: 54417) If plasma volume is below normal, the changes originated by the kidneys will be able to return the plasma osmolarity back to normal.Diff: 3 Page Ref: 54518) If glomerular filtration decreases, water excretion tends to decrease as well.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 54519) In the proximal tubule, sodium moves from the lumen into the tubule epithelial cell by diffusion through sodium channels.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 54720) Aldosterone stimulates an increase in sodium reabsorption at the same time it stimulates an increase in potassium secretion.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 54821) In the proximal tubules, the reabsorption of potassium involves a potassium channel on the apical membrane.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 55122) Calcium is permanently embedded in the rigid structure of bone.Diff: 3 Page Ref: 55223) 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3acts to increase the absorption of calcium in the digestive tract and increase reabsorption of calcium in the distal tubules of the kidney.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 55324) The release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is enhanced by an increase in the activity of the cardiac baroreceptors.Diff: 4 Page Ref: 54524
25) Alterations in acid-base balance that originate from the respiratory system involve alterationsin CO2content within the blood.Diff: 3 Page Ref: 55626) Renal and respiratory compensationrefers to the kidneys' and lungs' (respectively) ability to restore pH without affecting the cause of the acid-base disturbance.Diff: 3 Page Ref: 55727) Carbonic anhydrase is located inside intercalated cells of the distal tubule and collecting duct.