Since at least August 2005, radioactive toxins such as tritium and strontium-90 have been leaking from at least two spent fuel pools at Indian Point into the groundwater and the Hudson River. In
January 2007 it was reported that strontium-90 was detected in four out of twelve Hudson River fish tested. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission relies upon self-reporting and computer modeling from reactor operators to track radioactive releases and their projected dispersion. A significant portion of the environmental monitoring data is extrapolated – virtual, not real. However, radioactive releases from Indian Point’s routine operation often are not fully detected or reported. In fact, accidental releases may not be completely verified or documented. And, they occur throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, which includes uranium mining, uranium milling, chemical conversion, fuel enrichment and fabrication, the process by which electricity is generated at plant via controlled reaction, and the storage of radioactive waste, both on-site and off-site. Finally, radioactive by-products continue giving off dangerous radioactive particles and rays for enormously long periods – described in terms of “half lives.” A radioactive material gives off hazardous radiation for at least ten half-lives. One of the radioactive isotopes of iodine (iodine- 129) has a half-life of 16 million years; technetium-99 has a half-life of 211,000 years; and plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,000 years. Xenon-135, a noble gas, decays into cesium-135, an isotope with a 2.3 million year half-life. Important facts on Radioactive Pollution One of the major source of environmental concerned with the production of nuclear power which releases radioactive substances in the environment. Radioactive pollution is a special form of physical pollution related to major life supporting systems Such as air, water and soil. A number of atoms possess the ability to emit radiation's and thereby cause radioactive pollution. Radioactive pollution is very much different from the other types of pollution. Simply because its nature of contamination is different from others. Besides the effects are also different. Radioactivity is a phenomenon of spontaneous emission of protons (alpha particles), electrons (beta particles) and gamma rays (short wave electromagnetic waves) as a result of disintegration of atomic nucleus of some elements. Sources of Radiations : Sources of radiations exposure to plants, animals and humans can be grouped into two main types: I. Natural Sources of radiation II. Man-made sources of radiation (I) Natural Sources of Radiation:
Nuclear reactions have produced a large number of unstable nuclei or isotopes which lose subatomic particles and emit high energy radiations to acquire a stable state. This process continues and constitutes an important source of radiations for the biosphere. In addition earth's surface is regularly irradiated by X-rays, cosmic rays and ultraviolet rays from outer space and terrestrial radiations from radio nucleides. Uranium -238, thorium -232, radon -222, potassium
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- Fall '19
- Nuclear Fission, radioactive waste, Uranium, Nuclear weapon, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents