The particles in a liquid are closely packed but they

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the particles in a liquid are closely packed, but they have some ability to move around the close packing results in liquids being incompressible but the ability of the particles to move allows liquids to take the shape of their container and to flow – however they don’t have enough freedom to escape and expand to fill the container
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 12 12 Solids the particles in a solid are packed close together and are fixed in position though they are vibrating the close packing of the particles results in solids being incompressible the inability of the particles to move around results in solids retaining their shape and volume when placed in a new container; and prevents the particles from flowing
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 12 13 Solids some solids have their particles arranged in an orderly geometric pattern – we call these crystalline solids salt and diamonds other solids have particles that do not show a regular geometric pattern over a long range – we call these amorphous solids plastic and glass
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 12 14 Why is Sugar a Solid But Water is a Liquid? the state a material exists in depends on the attraction between molecules and their ability to overcome the attraction the attractive forces between ions or molecules depends on their structure the attractions are electrostatic depend on shape, polarity, etc. the ability of the molecules to overcome the attraction depends on the amount of kinetic energy they possess
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 12 15 Properties of Liquids Viscosity some liquids flow more easily than others the resistance of a liquid to flow we call viscosity larger the attractive forces between the molecules = larger the viscosity also, molecules whose shape is not round will have a larger viscosity
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 12 16 Properties of Liquids Surface Tension liquids tend to minimize their surface – a phenomenon we call surface tension this tendency causes liquids to have a surface that resists penetration
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 12 17 Surface Tension molecules in the interior of a liquid experience attractions to surrounding molecules in all directions but molecules on the surface experience an imbalance in attractions, effectively pulling them in to minimize this imbalance and maximize attraction, liquids try to minimize the number of molecules on the exposed surface by minimizing their surface area stronger attractive forces between the molecules = larger surface tension
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 12 18 Forces of Attraction within a Liquid Cohesive Forces = forces that try to hold the liquid molecules to each other surface tension Adhesive Forces = forces that bind a substance to a surface capillary action meniscus
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 12 19 Escaping from the Surface
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  • Fall '07
  • MILES
  • Mole, pH, attractive forces

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