good data system both in the shape of input and output of the IS). In addition to these we must say that, when these data are processed, ethical principles must be considered, which are in turn a result of the general culture existing in the firm.
ITP 14,3 250 Nevertheless, we should not ignore Proffitt's 1995) warning that organizations and IS which are only supported by data, are static systems whose procedures are based on a control culture which, in itself, does not increase knowledge. Thus, we can see that more elements are required. Concerning IT informatics, office equipment and telecommunications), they are the physical support of an IS. Although we are focusing on the qualitative and human side of the process, we must also admit that a necessary ± albeit not sufficient ± prerequisite for a suitable implementation of an IS is the financial and technical feasibility of the acquisition or innovation of this IT. However strong the organizational culture and its positive approach to the usage of an IS are, if the IT will not entail a satisfactory profit for the firm and/or it is not technically mastered, it is not likely to generate useful information. The third component that directly conditions a successful implementation of an IS is the corporate culture. In our opinion IT, together with its usage within an IS, may become an important symbol within the culture and vice versa. In fact, due to the versatility of IS, its specific interpretation within the culture may not be as visible as it might be initially expected. Bearing this in mind, we might wonder about the specific way the mutual relationship between culture and IT must be envisaged, i.e. does the organizational culture lay down the guidelines for the acquisition and usage of IT, or is IT the one which, through its general use within a firm, defines the personality of a firm, and hence its culture? We shall discuss the two answers to this question. Figure 1. Influence among IT, IS and organizational culture
Performance of information systems 251 1. The organizational culture lays down the guidelines for the acquisition of IT and its later development into an IS Several authors have supported this view, including Allard 1998); Brown and Starkey 1994); Gordon and Gordon 1992); Katz and Townsend 2000); Moorman 1995); Poole and DeSanctis 1990); Thompson and Wildavsky 1986) and Tolsby 1998). The basis for this opinion is that, if the members of an organization share the view that IT, and its correct usage within an IS, entails competitive advantages for a firm and a personal or group satisfaction, which would be acknowledged, for instance, through a reward policy, then its acquisition and usage will be part of the firm's values, and also the opposite may happen. 2. IT/IS is the one that establishes the specific character of an organizational culture As in the previous case, there are many who believe in this relationship; we may quote Boland et al . 1994); Daily et al . 1996); Gainey et al . 1999); Hibbard 1998); Newman and Chaharbaghi 1998); Olson 1982); and Robey and Azevedo 1994).
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- Fall '17