D yes because an airplane is an instrumentality

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d. Yes, because an airplane is an instrumentality within the channels of interstate commerce. Feedback Answer (D) is the best answer. In United States v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (1995), the Supreme Court  explained that three categories of laws come within Congress' Commerce Clause power: (1) laws  regulating the channels of interstate commerce; (2) laws regulating instrumentalities that travel or  work in the channels of interstate commerce, and (3) laws regulating an economic activity (or a non- economic activity that is an essential part of a larger economic activity) that has a substantial  aggregate effect on interstate commerce. This statute falls within Lopez' second category: laws that  regulate instrumentalities of interstate commerce. Lopez explained that "instrumentalities" of  interstate commerce included people or things that operate or travel in the channels of interstate  commerce. The Court cited Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, 379 U.S. 241 (1964), as an  example of a case dealing with the instrumentalities of interstate commerce. In Heart of Atlanta  Motel, Congress had proscribed racial discrimination in public accommodations such as hotels along the interstate highway system. The national roadways are channels of interstate commerce, and the  hotels and their employees are instrumentalities that serve that channel. Thus, the law regulated  instrumentalities of interstate commerce. The same is true of the federal law described in this  Question. The nation's airplane routes are channels of interstate commerce, and the airplanes and  passengers traveling in those routes are instrumentalities within the channels. By prohibiting  smoking during a flight, the law validly regulates the activities of people traveling in the channels of  interstate commerce.  Answer (A) is incorrect because it is incomplete. Answer (A) focuses only on the third category.  (Application of the third category is discussed further below in the discussion of Answer (B).) Even if  a federal law does not come within the third category, it is still constitutional if it comes within one of  the other two categories. Answer (A) is incorrect because it mistakenly assumes that a federal law is unconstitutional because it fails to come within one of the three Lopez categories.  Answer (B) is incorrect because it incorrectly applies the third. category. That category only applies  to laws where the regulated conduct itself is an economic activity. For example, in Lopez the  regulated activity was gun possession in a school zone. Of course, nearby operation of a school was a necessary circumstance of the crime, and operating a school might be an economic activity. But, 
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