Bahrain coercion Oman and Qatar popularity Authoritarianism as sheer durability

Bahrain coercion oman and qatar popularity

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Bahrain: coercion Oman and Qatar: popularity Authoritarianism as sheer durability -Religion is less prominent + dynasties do not rely on it for rise to power -Sectarian communities are important political communities GCC -Gulf Cooperation Council 1981 -common identity -close relation w/ US - SA UAE Bahraini grievances with Qatar: +annoyance at al-Jazeera, Qatari support for MS, Qatari relations with Iran, hostage negotiations, hacked QNA website -SA sever relations and impose embargo 2017 QATAR -MB disbanded in 1999 UAE -little dissent -silent during Arab Spring BUT Muslim Brotherhood met with repression -no tolerance of political Islam OMAN -not much oil compared to others -use tech that increases costs of production -oil revenues -> infrastructure (educ) -gov jobs + tourism +rich market for goods -politically stable for now BAHRAIN -1 st state to export oil -diversification: petroleum refining, aluminum - SA provide revenues from Abu Safa field dependent on SA - repression arab spring drove away business investment QATAR -oil resources +natural gas -invested abroad -adopted Dubai Model UAE -very rich oil exporters -Dubai- diversification Dubai Model: - diversification of economy reliant on cheap foreign labor – entrepot economy, tourism, airport, -influence on rest of Gulf -Dubai insolvency 2009 bailed out by Abu Dhabi
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Saudi Arabia -1 st Saudi state: amirate expanded quick --18 th C: Muhammad Ibn al-Wahhab -(1774-1818) first rise of Saudi power -1820: annexation of Mecca and Medina - 1902-12: al-Aziz restored power over Najd (financed by GB and Kuwait) -1915 Treaty of Darayn: british protectorate -1913: Bedouin army of Ikhwan (Brethren) conquest of Arabia but limited by GB borders imposed -1920s: Ikhwan rebellion 1929 defeat -1932: creation of Saudi arabian Kingdom Supported by tribes and merchants -1933: signature with standard oil CA + Independence from GB and merchants -1953: death of al-Aziz – global US centric circuits of money, expertise and power - rentierism - religious establishment (ulama, mutawwa’in) -the royal family institutionalized dynasticism -tribalism strategic marriages, neopatrimonialism, National Guard -other supports -very limited reforms Basic Law (1992) Local elections (2005) -challenges + militant Sunni Islamists + Shiite minority + oil income, inequality + succession issues new generation of princes -Abdullah died (2015) Salman becomes King MBN as Crown Prince MBS as second crown Prince (pushes MBN 2017) -MBS consolidates power: +erratic foreign policy (Yemen, Qatar, Lebanon, Canada) +reform or repression? (anti-corruption, arrest of activists, disappearance of Khashoggi Absolute monarchy with Summary basic law Royal family > security apparatus > religious establishment --> Council of Minister – main institution of the state, king heads it king’s powers are unchecked Centrality of royal family to society and economy reinforced since 1973 oil boom Military and police are main channels of communication bet/ state and society Heavy militarization does not stop foreign threat BUT imposes climate of fear + dissuades poli expression 1992 basic law: constitution is Qur’an and Sunna Arab Spring
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