Females usually possess two x chromosomes males

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Females usually possess two X chromosomes; males usually possess one X and one Y chromosome X-linked Refers to genes on the X chromosome Y chromosome The smaller of the two sex chromosomes. Females usually possess no Y chromosome; males usually possess one X and one Y chromosome Y-linked Refers to genes on the Y chromosome Zygote A fertilized ovum Adaptive radiation The evolution of a single population into a number of different species Allopatric species Species occupying mutually exclusive geographical areas Altruism Behavior characterized by self-sacrifice that benefits others Artificial selection The deliberate breeding of domesticated animals or plants Balanced polymorphism Maintenance of two or more alleles in a gene pool as the result of heterozygous advantage Biological environment The living elements surrounding the organism Clinal distribution A distribution of frequencies that show a systematic gradation over space; also called continuous variation Coefficient of relatedness A measurement of the degree of genetic relationship or the number of shared genes between two individuals Competition The situation in which two populations occupy the same or parts of the same niche Cultural environment The products of human endeavor, including technology and social institutions surrounding the organism Demes The local breeding population; the smallest reproductive population Directional selection A type of natural selection characterized by a generation-after-generation shift in a population in a specific direction, such as toward larger body size. In this example, individuals with smaller body size are being selected against Disruptive selection A type of natural selection characterized by a generation-after-generation shift in the
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population away from the average individual, such as, for example, toward both larger and smaller body size. In this example, individuals with average (mean) body size are being selected against Ecological isolation Ecological niche Erythrocyte Evolutionary psychology Extinction Fitness Gametic mortality Generalized species Geographical isolation Globin Habitat Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A (HbA) Hemoglobin C Hemoglobin S (HbS) Hybrid inviability Hybrid sterility Inclusive fitness Intersexual selection Intrasexual selection Kin selection Macroevolution Mechanical isolation Microenvironment Microevolution Microhabitat Phyletic gradualism Physical environment Postmating mechanism Preadaptation Premating mechanism Punctuated equilibrium Seasonal isolation Selective agent Selective pressure Sexual dimorphism Sexual isolation Sexual selection Sickle-cell anemia Sickle-cell trait
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Specialized species Speciation Stabilizing selection Subspecies Sympatric species Thalassemia Zygotic mortality Amniote egg Analogies Archetype Behavioral thermoregulation Binomen Binomial nomenclature Chordates Clade Cladistics Cladogram Class Classification Convergence Diaphragm Diphyodonty Domain Dorsal Family Four-chambered heart Genus Gill arches Gill slits
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