Job characteristics model motivation satisfaction

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Job Characteristics Model : Motivation + Satisfaction + High Performance = Meaningfulness + Skill Variety : people do many functions, wide range of skills Task Identity : work covers all the tasks from stat to finish Task Significance : worker feels the task is meaningful to the organization (nurse) = Responsible + Autonomy : worker is free to schedule tasks and carry them out on his own = Knowledge + Feedback : workers get direct information about how they’re performing 11
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Comparing the Approaches to Job Design : the fundamental differences…. Scientific Management: managers know best; people are motivated extrinsically ($$) Job Characteristics Model: employees have insight into their jobs; people are motivated by challenging work Interdependence : how do jobs interact ? Survey results: Downsizing is least disruptive with Pooled Interdependence because information flow is very explicitly dictated, and people can move around easily. In small organizations, people tend to just “pitch in.” In larger ones, more organization and systematization is required. Jobs mostly tend to be described in terms of KSAs. The basic philosophies of management results in orthogonal approaches to job design; they are essentially different between efficiency versus differentiation. Lecture 9: People: Managing and Motivating a Diverse Workforce People Management Activities: Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) Person-Job Fit : when the person filling a job possesses the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to adequately perform it ( the focus is on the KSAs ). There are two ways to approach a person-job fit: Recruitment & Selection and Training & Development. (1) Recruitment & Selection Biographical Information Work Samples & Assessment Centers Tests 12 The Hackman/Oldham Job Characteristics Model Pooled : easiest to manage; ex. Each branch does the same thing, so managers can manage each branch in the same way Sequential : very specific communication between each branch is needed, and the communication between each branch is entirely difference; each stage must be managed differently because of this Reciprocal : all ideas happen simultaneously; information flow is hard to managed because all groups interact in no systematic way; this is the hardest type to manage ; ex. Shown is for new product development.
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o Standardized and administered to groups; can be intelligence tests of general cognitive ability, can measure specific aptitude and ability; can also do personality inventories if they think the job requires certain personality types Interviews o Unstructured: casual, informal conversations; advantages: interviews give info about the job and applicants are comfortable in the setting; disadvantages: low validity (doesn’t test job performance) and many biases (ex. order effects, lack of consistency, stereotyping) o Structured: rationale for this is that it is developed from job analysis and seeks a good person-job fit; advantages: standardized questions to tap job dimensions and adequate validity; disadvantages: can be costly to develop and much potential for biases still looms Key Legal Issues with Person-Job Fit & Selection: Defined in terms of the 4/5ths Rule
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