=a specific time during development when a particular event will have its greatest consequences =certain kinds of environment stimuli must be present for development to proceed normally SENSITIVE PERIODS =organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments =the absence of those stimuli during sensitive period does not always produce irreversible consequences Lifespan Approaches vs Focus on Particular Periods -Early developmentalists tended to focus attention on infancy and adolescence, excluding other parts of the lifespan -Today’s developmentalists believe the entire lifespan is important Nature vs Nurture NATURE: genes =MATURATION : the predetermined unfolding of genetic information NURTURE: physical & social environment 1.2 Theoretical Perspectives of Lifespan Development THEORIES =broad, organized explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest =provides a framework for understanding the relationships among a seemingly unorganized set of facts and principles Five major theoretical perspectives: PSYCHODYNAMIC BEHAVIOURAL COGNITIVE CONTEXTUAL EVOLUTIONARY 1. PSYCHODYNAMIC =approach stating that behaviour is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are generally beyond people’s awareness and control ~~~~~~~~~ Freud, Sigmund PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY = unconscious forces act to determine personality and behaviour, unconscious is the part of personality a person is unaware— contains infantile wishes, desires, demands and needs that are hidden, also responsible for a good part of our everyday behaviour ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Freud’s three aspects of personality ID =raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality that is present at birth, represents primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression and irrational impulses = pleasure principle, which goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tension EGO =rational and reasonable, act as a buffer between external world and primitive id = reality principle, instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society SUPEREGO
=person’s conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong, begins to develop around age 5 or 6 and learned from significant figures PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT (FREUD) =occurs as children pass through distinct stages in which pleasure, or gratification is focused on a particular biological function and body part =from mouth (oral stage) to anus (anal stage) to genitals (phallic stage and genital stage) ORAL: oral gratification from sucking, eating, mouthing, biting ANAL: expelling and withholding feces; coming to terms with society’s controls relating to toilet training PHALLIC: interest in the genitals; coming to terms with oedipal conflict, leading to identification with same-sex parents LATENCY: sexual concerns largely unimportant GENITAL: re-emergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships FIXATION =behaviour reflecting an earlier stage of development due to unresolved conflict
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