Are people whose main endeavor is ll hd icine a nd

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are people whose main endeavor is ll H:d icine, a nd for study and re sea rch they also come over to try to get bdter acquainted [with such wo rk] . In their language a surgeon is c all ed "heirumeisuteru" [Du. heelmeester (surgeon)] or "hando ueru- l; ermu" I craftsman; i.e., surgeon] but si nce on the ships he combines Ill l:dicine [with surgerv] he is called "dokutoru ." Two men come over on cach ship. One is called "oppuru meisuteru," and the other is called "o llde ru ll1eisuteru" Our comparable terms for these are sen ior sur- ge 'JIl and jUllior surgeon. "Oppuru " is senior. "Onderu" is junior. The one w ho pays his respects at Edo is th e "oppuru meisuteru." However, <1S lIoted above, they are called "dokutoru. " [ge, pp. 15 - 18) (Otsuki, Ransetsu bemvaku; Goodlllan, trans. , "Translation of Otsuki : Gentaku's Ranset.su benwaku," pp. 71-99] SHIBA KOKAN SI il la i< o k"n ' ,1 -. +7-1818), an Edo man, was a painter of traditional Chinese an d I "I )"IlC S t' s tyle s f '> pecially ukiyo-e [woodblock prints)) bef()fe he developed all 1/1 ,( re st I II vVeste rn art and, in association wit h th e leading scholars of Dut ch .Iu lie> . bl'l am C an enthusiastic advocate ofV/estern art and civilizatiqn 11, _,ted ill I, is \I ' ork as a painter, etcher. and engraver. "Dutch Learning" 3 8 5 DISCUSSING WESTERN PAINTING (S EIYO GA DAN) / TIle distingui s hed hist o rian Sir Geo rge Sansom sa \\' Shiba K6kan as representing a signI ficant re s tlessn ess among educated Jap anese of his day: "[He) fe lt that his native u lture was exha ust ed and sta le .. . a man in r <.:l·o !t against contemporary Japane se life, ... [and) impressed by the material and scie ntific aspects of Western culture."5 The following co mm ents by K6kan, from Discussing Western Pai nting (1799), reflect Ili s sense of impati ence with his own co untrymen for failing to appreciate things Westem. I. The diamet er of the world is more thail seven thou sa nd miles, and the route circumnavigating it IS over twenty-four thousand miles. The land as the yVest is in the region lying to west of China and Japan. The most nt region of the West is ca lled Europe. It is one of the great continents and seve ral thou sa nd countries the s ize of Japan. One of them, the Neth- is divided into seven districts, one of which is Holland. The various countries of the We st all have the sa me st yle of painting. Since style was introduced to Japan by the Dutch, and since today there are examples of Dutch art in Japan , we call all Western paintings "Dutch The technique employed in this art produces a tr ue representation reality, greatly different from the style that is used in Japan. Many per so ns in -am ong them those who paint in the traditional Chinese or Ja pa nese nique-consider Western-s tyle painting absurd and ha ve no desire to learn Western method. Not only do they think it unworthy of study, but they feel it has no artistic value and cannot be ca lled painting at all! They seem to ihink that the artistic creations of the West arc mere artisan's work. This is )n deed an extremely fooli sh notion.

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