Tape array 32 to 63 tape array using raid technology

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Tape Array – 32 to 63 Tape Array using RAID technology HSM – Hierarchical. Provides a continuous on-line backup by using optical or tape ‘jukeboxes’, similar to WORMs. Common Backup Problems n Slow transfer of data to backup n Retrieval time to restore n Off hour processing and monitoring n Server disk space expands over time n Loss of data between last back up n Physical security of tapes Single Points of Failure Cabling Failures– n Coaxial : many workstations or servers attached to the same segment of cable, which creates a single point of failure if it is broken (similar to cable TV cabling). Exceeding cable length is a source of failure. n Twisted Pair : (CAT3 and CAT 5) The difference between the two has to do with the tightness the copper wires are wound. Tightness determines its resistance to interference. CAT3 is older. Cable length is a common failure n Fiber Optic : Immune to EMI. Longer usable length (upto 2kms). Drawback is costs. Technology Failures Ethernet n Most Popular n Extremely resistance to failure, especially in a star-wired config. Token Ring n Since token is passed by every station on the ring n NIC set at wrong speed or in error state can bring the network down
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FDDI – Fiber Distributed Data Interface n Dual rings fault tolerance (if first ring fails, the secondary ring begins working) n Sometimes uses second ring for improved performance Leased Lines T1 and ISDN – go with multiple vendors to reduce failures Frame Relay n Public switched WAN n Highly Fault Tolerant n Bad segment diverts packets n Can use multiple vendors for high availability Other Single Points of Failure n Can be any device where all traffic goes through a single device - Router, firewall, hub, switch n Power failure – surges, spikes – install UPS Note: Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is good tool for router configuration Classes of Network Abuse Class A unauthorized access through circumvention of security access controls. Masquerading, logon abuse (primarily internal attacks) Class B non-business use of systems Class C Eavesdropping n Active : Tampering with a transmission to create a covert signaling channel or probing the network n Passive : Covertly monitoring or listening to transmissions that is unauthorized. n Covert Channel : using a hidden unauthorized communication n Tapping: refers to the physical interception of a transmission medium (like splicing of cable). Class D Denial of Service Saturation of network services Class E Network Intrusion – penetration (externally) n Spoofing – A spoofing attack involves nothing more than forging one's source address. It is the act of using one machine to impersonate another. n Piggy Backing – attack using another users connection n Back Door – attack via dial up or external connection Class F Probing n Gives an intruder a road map of the network for DoS attack n Gives a list of available services n Traffic analysis via ‘sniffers’ which scans the host for available services n
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  • Fall '12
  • Hurst
  • IP address, Packet filtering

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