Archaeology Study Guide Exam 2 .docx

From distant quarries nile was used moving stone to

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From distant quarries, Nile was used Moving stone to site Sleds used on land Prepare foundation One of the problems with earlier pyramids is that they were build directly on the sand For the Great Pyramids, sand removed about 30 feet to bedrock, and foundation built Used level table to find level Excavating to bedrock simplifies the process of adding inner chambers *• Move Blocks Into Place Many possible ways it can be done, we lack certainty which method used on Great Pyramid -each step- mastabas, step- put mastabas on top, development of idea of pyramids, red, bent, compex
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-having evidence of them experimenting and failing What were the predecessors to the Egyptian pyramids Matabas How we get to the pyramid? Pyramids King Djojer (4650 BP) built step pyramid at Saqqara First large-scale stone building *• Mastabas – Before the Pyramids One story unadorned mudbrick structures covering tomb shafts Centuries of use, for elite burials The Step Pyramid Step Pyramid Evolved through Time First: Mastaba enlarged twice (M2, M3) Then: 4 step pyramid created Then: 6 step pyramid created Mastabas Evolve Learning to Build Pyramids Meidum Pyramid (circa 4600 BP) Built by Sneferu, collapsed (outer layer on sand foundation) Originally started as a Step Pyramid, then filled in steps Learning to Build Pyramids Bent Pyramid Built by Sneferu Angle too steep Learning to Build Pyramids Red Pyramid Built by Sneferu, used by Sneferu -over several centuries gradual evolution of pyramids-thats how we got the great pyramid -they made early mistakes (medium and Bent), they are based on earlier architecture (mastabas) writings, camps and evidence of the workers Pyramids Great Pyramid Built by Sneferu’s son, Khufu At Giza All on west bank of Nile, near setting sun, association with death Great Pyramid Complex Indus valley civilizations Early Harrapa Period 5200-4500 BP Most sites of similar size, only a few large towns Population in Valley triples Little public architecture, little wealth difference *• Mature Harrapa Period 4500-3900 BP Appearance of large cities Largest sites: Mohenjo-daro and Harrapa Over 800 known sites from period *• Mature Harrapa Period
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Broad cultural convergence with shared images and styles- new art, architecture, and culture -all over the Indus River Valley-there were widely shared symbols and ideas *• Mohenjo-Daro -largest city in the world at that time -built on strict grid system 2.5 sq km Perhaps 40,000 residents Planned central part, on a grid Mohenjo-Daro North-south street 18 feet wide, flanked by drainage ditches Public toilets and sewers, bathrooms in houses Most buildings made of fired brick On the West, a raised area called the “citadel” Features a Great Bath pool -evidence of wells, sewage canals, drainage ditches -wealth discrepancies are less visible Mehrgarh 9000-7500 BP
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