5 while the rhetorical canons were originally

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5. While the rhetorical canons were originally developed in the service of spoken discourse, we can begin to superimpose these interrelated concepts onto the acts of writing, as teachers of writing have for millennia… As rhetoricians developed ways to invent, arrange, and deliver their speeches, they came up with the following organizational model—a model that can also apply to a written composition: Exordium : Get audience's attention (often through pathos); gain the good will of the audience through ethos appeals; introduce the topic and show relevance/immediacy (Why does this matter right now?). Narratio : Give the argument context/history by giving the background (story) of what's come before. Partitio : Identify the key reasons you're going to offer to defend your claim and map them out quickly for the audience. Confirmatio : Take each of your reasons one at a time and offer evidence to support it. Refutatio : Deal with views which refute your claim or reasons and with any other concerns the audience might have about your argument. Peroratio : Summarize your argument and offer the audience an action to take. 6. We can go far and wide in pointing to all the things that may or may not persuade or foster identification with an audience or listener. Public speakers often tell a joke or a funny story to warm up (identify with) the audience and put them in a certain frame of mind. Writers sometimes start off (or end) essays with an anecdote (little story), or catchy or quirky title, that has an accommodating effect on the reader. Some speakers or writers use naysayers or counterclaims in their messages (or certain messages); others do not. Speakers or writers may use certain phrases, terms, styles, or tones to play on readers’ or listeners’ perceptions. A speaker may have a word they use a lot, or they may use parentheticals a lot, they may In venti o n A ran gem en t S ty le M em o ry D e live ry
27 use “I” often or rarely, or they may use stylistic tropes like metaphor or irony . So, rhetoric is concerned with both what people say and how they say it. Importantly, rhetoricians pay very close attention to how smaller parts of speech and texts— words and sentences —logically relate to larger purposes and structures of speech and texts. 7. The study of rhetoric includes building an awareness of all the things that can contribute to persuasion or identification. An awareness of the moves, strategies, and language people use—when trying to argue a point, when trying to get on someone’s “good side,” or just in everyday experience when trying to relay an interesting story to a good friend—can be a powerful, comprehensive theoretical and analytical method for approaching texts and communicative contexts, especially if we couple a theory of rhetoric with an attempt at perhaps an even broader theory of discourse… 8. Some good online resources to consult for things to consider and methods for rhetorical analysis: Very broad, but still useful: %20heuristic.htm

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