Birminghammost segregated city in us roots of racial

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Birmingham=most segregated city in US, roots of racial violencea)SCLC worked w/ Rev Fred Shuttlesworth to plan campaign; strategy=fill city jails w/ protesters, boycott dept stores, enrage Public Safety Commis-sioner Eugene “Bull” Connorb)King demand end to racist hiring practices/segregated public accommoda-tions, create biracial committee to oversee desegregation-->King arrestedc)King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail to clegry reprinted & into pam-phlet-set out key moral issues, scoffed those claiming pamphlet illegal d)SCLC create “children’s crusade”-->Bull Connor used water cannons, bil-ly clubs, police dogs to break up demonstrations-->young blacks fought backe)May 10-Justice Dept negotiate truce-->demonstrations stop, over 3 monthsbusinesses desegregate & hire Af Am fairly7
f)Americans public reacts w/ horror2.Bull Connor & Gov George Wallace denounce agreement; KKK burns cross inBirmingham park; SCLC headquarters bombed & King’s brother’s house -->blacks took to streets & threw things at policea)Kennedy nationalizes Alabama National Guar-->whites agree to carry out compromiseb)Birmingham campaign inspire many national civil rights supporters-black & whiteB.JFK and the March on Washington:1.AL gov George Wallace threat block 2 blacks from state university-->Kennedyput National Guard under fed control & keep students safea)June 11-pres endorse civil rights activism-->Kennedy ask Congress for broad law ensuring voting rights, outlaw segregation in public facilities, bolster federal authority to deny funds for discriminatory programsb)Knew would face fight from conservatives-->lobbied for laws2.Medgar Evers-leader NAACP in Mississippi murdered-->planned nonviolent march on Washington-idea byA. Philip Randolph & Bayard Rustina)Kennedy admin opposed march-->later gave approvalb)John Lewis-head of SNCC wrote speech against Kennedys-->march fi-nanciers and leaders oppose speech-->Lewis toned it downc)August 28, 1963-rally for “jobs and freedom”, largest political assembly innation’s history until thend)Martin Luther King Jr speech-combine democratic promise of Dec of In-dependence w/ religious fever of Baptist heritage; “I have a dream...”C.LBJ and the Civil Rights Act of 1964:1.Liberals push through new civil rights bill; JFK assassinated throw cloud over civil rights movement-->Johnson=new pres not friend of civil rights-worked toobstruct passage of civil rights bills through Congress-->decided switch posi-tiona)1964-made clear wouldn’t brook compromise on civil rights-->cajoled, flattered, threatened key House/Senate members in favor civil rightsb)Leadership Conference on Civil Rights lobbied Congress-passed strong civil rights bill-difficult in Senate-->southern filibuster collapsed, bill passed2.Civil Rights Act of 1964-fed legislation outlawing discrimination in public ac-commodations & employment on basis of race, skin color, sex, religion, na-tional origin8
D.Mississippi Freedom Summer:1.Freedom Summer-voter registration effort in rural Mississippi organized by

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