Information that an individual has learned about gender ( cognitive association ) ● Gender Script ○ attention ○ memory - easier encoding & retrieval ■ Ex: Your idea of what normal behavior is on a first date ○ People have different scripts about who pays the bill, who asks the person out on the first date ○ If we have strong expectations of how things will happen, then they don’t, we’ll be able to more strongly remember those details ○ As long as a person doesn’t deviate greatly from our script, we will remember them more in line with our script ● Gender Schema Theory ○ Children learn from their culture what it means to be male and female and they adjust their behavior accordingly ○ Proposes that children’s intrinsic motivation to acquire gender-consistent interests, values, and behavior emerges as soon as children can identify their own gender, sometime around age 3 ○ Proposes that children first classify new objects and activities according to an in- group/out-group schema as “for boys” or “for girls” ● Gender Identity ○ Degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine based on society’s definition of appropriate gender roles ○ Young children who feel that their identity does not match their physical body are 8
not confused based on current research ● Social Learning Theory ○ Children learn appropriate ‘gender’ behavior through: ■ reinforcement ■ punishment ■ modeling/imitating ● Ex. it’s based on parenting, what ever the child observes from parenting, they will consider the norm. For instance, cooking is only something mom does. ● Very different behavior towards babies based on if the person is told they are a boy or a girl ○ Ex: Books: “We help Mummy” and “We help Daddy” ○ Mom cleans, cooks and shops // dad chops wood and smokes a pipe ○ After WWII: Clothing manufacturers wanted you to buy new clothes for your babies, so they made boy/girl baby clothes very different from each other and gave them different color schemes This is when pink became “for girls” ○ Baby clothes used to be white - you could bleach them and get them clean ○ They were all in long gowns - Prince George is dressed in pretty traditional clothes ○ Pink used to be associated with masculinity because it was considered a color of war ○ Blue was considered delicate and warm - more associated with little girls ■ If there is any innate difference that boys like science more than girls, there is no scientific evidence, but it is reinforced from the time they’re born ● Social Learning Theory ○ Avoiding social rejection influences so much of our own behavior, and the decisions we make for our children’s behavior ● Gender Similarities Hypothesis ○ Argues that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables ○ Men and women are more similar than they are different ● Gender Differences Hypothesis ○ Males and females are vastly different ● Testing Gender Similarity/Differences Hypothesis ○ Meta-analysis ■ statistical method that aggregates research findings ■ when you combine all of these research findings, you’re getting a more diverse sample, people from different time periods, etc.
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