Information that an individual has learned about gender cognitive association

Information that an individual has learned about

This preview shows page 8 - 10 out of 24 pages.

Information that an individual has learned about gender ( cognitive association ) Gender Script attention memory - easier encoding & retrieval Ex: Your idea of what normal behavior is on a first date People have different scripts about who pays the bill, who asks the person out on the first date If we have strong expectations of how things will happen, then they don’t, we’ll be able to more strongly remember those details As long as a person doesn’t deviate greatly from our script, we will remember them more in line with our script Gender Schema Theory Children learn from their culture what it means to be male and female and they adjust their behavior accordingly Proposes that children’s intrinsic motivation to acquire gender-consistent interests, values, and behavior emerges as soon as children can identify their own gender, sometime around age 3 Proposes that children first classify new objects and activities according to an in- group/out-group schema as “for boys” or “for girls” Gender Identity Degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine based on society’s definition of appropriate gender roles Young children who feel that their identity does not match their physical body are 8
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not confused based on current research Social Learning Theory Children learn appropriate ‘gender’ behavior through: reinforcement punishment modeling/imitating Ex. it’s based on parenting, what ever the child observes from parenting, they will consider the norm. For instance, cooking is only something mom does. Very different behavior towards babies based on if the person is told they are a boy or a girl Ex: Books: “We help Mummy” and “We help Daddy” Mom cleans, cooks and shops // dad chops wood and smokes a pipe After WWII: Clothing manufacturers wanted you to buy new clothes for your babies, so they made boy/girl baby clothes very different from each other and gave them different color schemes This is when pink became “for girls” Baby clothes used to be white - you could bleach them and get them clean They were all in long gowns - Prince George is dressed in pretty traditional clothes Pink used to be associated with masculinity because it was considered a color of war Blue was considered delicate and warm - more associated with little girls If there is any innate difference that boys like science more than girls, there is no scientific evidence, but it is reinforced from the time they’re born Social Learning Theory Avoiding social rejection influences so much of our own behavior, and the decisions we make for our children’s behavior Gender Similarities Hypothesis Argues that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables Men and women are more similar than they are different Gender Differences Hypothesis Males and females are vastly different Testing Gender Similarity/Differences Hypothesis Meta-analysis statistical method that aggregates research findings when you combine all of these research findings, you’re getting a more diverse sample, people from different time periods, etc.
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