A short story writer writes a story about a

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A short story writer writes a story about a middle­aged woman battling breast cancer who decides to run in the New York Marathon. What strategies might the author employ to help readers empathize with the runner's experience? Tell the story in the first person, from the woman's point of view. Describe the woman's inner conflict (that is, whether her health will allow her to run). Describe how the woman must balance her cancer treatment and her training for the race.
Charlie Chaplin as The Little Tramp, 1915 (PD). Cinema Example: Mack Sennett's The Tramp How can a director make a character who might otherwise be shunned by audiences because of his low social status into a hero? The audience sees Charlie Chaplin as the Little Tramp, a vagrant, taking on the characteristics of middle­class gentility. Though he doesn't always live up to these standards, he gets by on his charm and wit. Chaplin is an underdog figure, one who comes out on top of situations despite the odds, and audiences embrace the character as loveable. Example: Creating Audience Empathy A filmmaker is creating a movie about two prisoners of war escaping from an enemy camp. How might the filmmaker help audiences empathize with the struggle of the main characters against their captors? Show a chase scene with the prisoners running through the woods with their captors and attack dogs following close behind to make the audience anxious for the prisoners. Show a close­up of the face of one prisoner who is forced to continue the escape by himself when he is urged to do so by his friend, who has been mortally wounded. The close­up will help the audience feel the sadness and regret of the prisoner who must go on alone. Example: Encouraging Action A filmmaker is shooting a documentary about efforts to discourage minorities from voting in a particular city. The filmmaker's aim is to persuade the audience that voter suppression is a pressing issue that should be addressed through better enforcement of the law. How might the filmmaker make a convincing case for better enforcement? What two approaches could he or she take to grab the audience's attention and bring it to embrace a particular point of view?
Conveying Point of View to the Audience Artists—writers, painters, photographers, and film­makers create for their audiences a point of view. Omniscient points of view offer the viewer the most insight into the situation, while limited points of view restrict the audience's point of view to create specific feelings or responses, depending on the situation. Look through the examples below to consider why these artists chose specific points of view and how the point of view grants or withdraws access to information about the situation portrayed.

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