Strategies for Improving Diversity Outcomes • Effective programs – Focus on numbers rather than “soft” stuff • Diversity training does not enhancewomen and minority representation in top management • Systematic programs that measure therepresentation of women and minorities in top management areeffective • Holding managers accountablefor achieving demographically diverseteams also has been shown to be effective
Emotions and Behavior • Question for debate – Arelabels attached to demographic categories helpful or harmful for society? – What arethebenefits of using race, gender, age, ethnicity, and disability status to definepeople? What arethe disadvantages?
Moving on to Deep Level Diversity • Wecan train peopleto do things whereskills areconcerned. But thereis onecapability wedo not haveand that is to changea person’s attitude. So weprefer an unskilled person with a good attitude…to a highly skilled person with a bad attitude – Herb Kelleher, CEO, Southwest Airlines • Most organizations want to hirepeoplebased on their personalities, but personality is notoriously difficult to measure
TheResearch Personality Conundrum • Classic debate in thefield of personality – "With the possible exception of intelligence, highly generalized behavioral consistencies havenot been demonstrated, and the concept of personality traits as broad responsedispositions is thus untenable." • Walter Mischel, 1968, Personality and Assessment. – Examples: personality and confidence in approaching problems – This was obtained mostly from laboratory studies which are strong situations – Also found in studies of general tendencies (religiosity) and behavior (attending church on a given Sunday)
TheResearch Personality Conundrum • Subsequent studies tried a different approach – Field studies showed therewas consistency in personality and behavior when theenvironment was weaker – Thebroader themeasures, themorerelated they wereto oneanother across situations
Theory of the Humors • Early theory famously promulgated by Hippocrates and Galen • Medical implications included bloodletting, purges, and giving treatments that weretheoppositeof the“excess humor” Humor Name Element Organ Characteristics Blood Sanguine Air Liver Amorous, generous, optimistic, happy Yellow bile Choleric Fire Spleen Violent, short-tempered, ambitious Black bile Melancholic Earth Gall bladder Introspective, sentimental, gluttonous Phlegm Phlegmatic Water Lungs Sluggish, pallid, cowardly
Implications of Humors for Modern Personality Theory • Obviously, this theory is mostly wrong, but it does makesomevery important first steps • Recognized a link between bodily states and psychological states – This link was neglected for most of modern medicine – Research now shows psychological states influence neurotransmitters and even hormones and vice versa • Proposed a crudeversion of the personality types that would belater developed by Jung – Personality psychology describes characteristics that have always differentiated people
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- Spring '08
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