Berlin Airlift —The Berlin Blockade ( 1 April 1948 – 12 May 1949 ) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control. The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutschmark from West Berlin. In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, a difficult feat given the city's population The Korean War (June 1950 – July 1953) —War between North and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union. The war arose from the division of Korea at the end of World War II and from the global tensions of the Cold War that developed immediately afterwards. The Truman Doctrine — An American foreign policy to stop Soviet imperialism during the Cold War. It was announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947 when he pledged to contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey. No American military force was involved; instead Congress appropriated a free gift of financial aid to support the economies and the militaries of Greece and Turkey. More generally, the Truman doctrine implied American support for other nations threatened by Soviet communism. The Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy, and led in 1949 to the formation of NATO, a full-fledged military alliance that is in effect to this day.
Warsaw Pact —Collective defense treaty among eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War, led by the USSR. The Warsaw Pact was in part a Soviet military reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955, but was primarily motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe. Massive retaliation —If any country attacked an American Allie, the U.S. would retaliate with a nuclear attack on USSR. Nikita Khrushchev — In the power struggle triggered by Stalin's death in 1953, Khrushchev, after several years, emerged victorious. On February 25, 1956, at the 20th Party Congress, he delivered the "Secret Speech", denouncing Stalin's purges and ushering in a less repressive era in the Soviet Union. Called for peace w/ U.S. and stop nuclear testing. Walter Ulbricht — a German communist politician that played a leading role in the creation of the Weimar-era Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and later (spending the years of Nazi rule in exile in France and the Soviet Union) in the early development and establishment of East Germany. As the first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party 1950 to 1971, he was the chief decision maker in East Germany. From President Wilhelm Pieck's death in 1960, he was also the East German head of state until his own death in 1973.
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