i. Liszt ii. Wagner - (is not program music or absolute, has words) 2. Absolute - music doesn’t have to represent anything else, it can be complete in itself. i. Brahms Program music - is strictly instrumental Johannes Brahms (1833 - 1897) Music education: schooled in the works of Bach, Haydn and Beethoven - older music Hungarian folk music influence Early career - concert pianist and conductor in Vienna Moved from Hamburg to Vienna Composed absolute music - Romantic musical characteristics with Classical genres and forms Brahms as Musicologist o Amassed a collection of original sheep music by composers of the past o Compiled collection of Eastern European folk music o Symphony No. 2 in D Major, third movement, Allegretto grazioso Characteristic of music that suggest folk music: (Chopin Mazurka) Triple meter Beat three = emphasized Oboe - solo- woodwind - rural area, nature Up until this point, once a composer died, their music would stop being performed in public after about 10 years, but now people are getting the urge to perform works of the past, even though their ideologies are gone. How do we make room for the new composers, this is the beginning of a crisis. o Beethoven left us with the Motivic Idea, Brahms used this too
Romantic Opera *sit down and go through each composer and write down what their primary contribution to western art music Changes in Opera: Composers included characters who represent the fringes of society (whores, handicapped) Recitative and aria become more alike: Recitative become s accompanied by the orchestra Both evolve toward a DECLAMATORY style A mix of both, more organic Birth of national opera forms other than Italian Romantic Italian Opera: Bel canto (Beautiful singing) Giuseppe Verdi (1813 - 1901) King of Romantic Italian Opera Vocal line becomes increasingly declamatory Greater orchestral complexity 1. La traviata 2. Rigoletto Has a daughter- Gilda Duke - lets rigoletto stay and play in court Duke wants daughter Rigoletto tries to get duke killedb German Opera and Richard Wagner Singspiel Melodrama Richard Wagner Gesamtkunstwerk (total art work) Traditional harmony stretched to its limit Music dramas Germanic influence o Vocal declamation and leitmotif Opera Cycle: the Ring of the Nibelung
o Wotom - god in Wagner's Opera Cosima, girlfriend of Wagner Bayreuth, new type of theatre Wagner gives us works that incorporate declam. Cyclicism, --Wagner creates these ideas in the orchestra (motives) that represent something, o What this means is that as the singers are singing, it is the orchestra that tells the audience what the feeling of the character or an idea of the character. This basically means that the singers sing over in a declam. melody and the orchestra gives the emotional idea.
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