4. When the information describes a major event that is inconsistent with the standard schema, people are likely to remember that event (e.g., the child who crashes into Sarah). Schemas and Boundary Extension Demonstration 8.6 boundary extension—our tendency to remember having viewed a greater portion of a scene than was actually shown Intraub and colleagues see photo then draw replica of photo Participants consistently produced a sketch that extended the boundaries beyond the view presented in the original photo. activate a perceptual schema relevance in eyewitness testimony situations Schemas and Memory Abstraction
abstraction —a memory process that stores the meaning of a message but not the exact words verbatim memory —word-for-word recall The Constructive Approach Bransford and Franks (1971) listen to sentences from several different stories recognition test including new items People were convinced that they had seen these new items before ( false alarm ). False alarms were particularly likely for complex sentences consistent with the original schema. False alarms were unlikely for sentences violating the meaning of the earlier sentences. constructive model of memory —People integrate information from individual sentences in order to construct larger ideas; later, they cannot untangle the constructed information from the verbatim sentences. The Pragmatic Approach pragmatic view of memory —people pay attention to the aspect of a message that is most relevant to their current goals 1. People know that they usually need to accurately recall the gist of a sentence.
2. They also know that they usually do not need to remember the specific wording of the sentences. 3. However, in those cases where they do need to pay attention to the specific wording, then they know that their verbatim memory needs to be highly accurate. Murphy and Shapiro (1994)—Insult Study read letters from "Samantha" to cousin or boyfriend bland vs. sarcastic comments recognition test on original, paraphrased, or irrelevant sentences Correct recognition was higher for sentences from the sarcastic condition than for sentences in the bland condition. more false alarms for paraphrases of bland sentences than sarcastic sentences more accurate verbatim memory for the sarcastic version than for the bland version The Current Status of Schemas and Memory Abstraction two compatible approaches In many cases we integrate information into large schemas. In some cases we know that specific words matter and pay close attention to precise wording. Schemas and Memory Integration
memory integration—background knowledge encourages people to take in new information in a schema- consistent fashion People may remember schema- consistent information, even though it was not part of the original stimulus material. Schemas do not always operate. Factors such as delay before testing and task complexity influence the use of schemas. The Classic Research on Memory Integration Bartlett (1932) memory as the complex interaction between the participants' prior knowledge and the material presented individual's unique interests and personal background often shape the contents of memory "The War of the Ghosts" study Native American story read and recalled by British students Participants tended to
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- Fall '15
- Eleanor Rosch