their roots to Foucault and Marx emphasize the interrelationships between power

Their roots to foucault and marx emphasize the

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their roots to Foucault and Marx, emphasize the interrelationships between power and knowledge (Harlos et al. 2003). In a user-centred MBA, there is room for both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Both would be used in concert to develop a subjective, intimate, understanding of the user, in contrast to the distancing and dehumanizing effect of regarding consumers as statistics. Because of the differences in underlying epistemologies
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it makes sense to offer separate courses but framed by a common philosophy of user intimacy. Abductive reasoning. Abductive reasoning, in contrast to deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning, is thinking about what might be possible. In Aristotelian logic, inductive reasoning is generalization from specific instances, while deductive reasoning involves inference from logical premises. Charles Peirce (1903) described abductive logic as the process of forming an explanatory hypothesis. It is the only logical operation which introduces any new idea. Abductive reasoning proceeds by the observation of a surprising phenomenon that confronts pre-existing beliefs, reflection on the assumptions that led to the surprise and revision of these assumptions (Quilici Gonzalez and Haselager 2005); it includes creativity, which Boden (2004) defines as transformation of the conceptual space. To learn about abductive reasoning, students would learn to identify their own implicit beliefs and assumptions and to confront these by User-centred Design 137 generating alternative solutions to problems through creative processes (for example, Czikzentmihalyi 1990; DeBono 2000). They would additionally learn how organizations can be managed to encourage abductive reasoning (Amabile 1998). Synthesis. As noted earlier, the components of systems thinking are analysis and synthesis. Students would learn to integrate analytical and synthetic methods to arrive at an appreciation of the larger context for business problems. This does not mean abandoning a reductionist approach, but rather means learning that the relationships between components of a problem are just as important as the components themselves. The approach has already been widely applied in operations research: for example, Daellenbachand and Petty s (2000) application of the MENTOR system originated by Belton et al. (1997) has three stages: problem formulation, modelling, and implementation. Synthetic and analytical methods are used throughout iterations of the process, in which identification of the problem and the system are emphasized. Collaboration. The prevailing approach in business schools to working with other students is a confrontational one in which ideas compete for acceptance (Dunne and Martin 2006). This works against the need to confront one s own assumptions in framing and solving problems, and the element of surprise when these assumptions are confronted. In a user-centred business school, students would learn to work collaboratively, rather than confrontationally, in groups. However, groups of relatively
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