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3 government should emphasize positive freedom as the

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3. Government should emphasize positive freedom as the most important value This means freedom to be enabled to do something even if it needs to be enabled by government. The goal is to create community where all can flourish. Government may have to regulate social behavior to ensure this. Equality of life chances must be ensured 7
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Power, Authority, and Exchange – ISS 225 Ideology for all members of community. Despite handicaps (background, physical, social, mental), the goal is to become fully participating member of society; all people are equally worthy of respect. The key aim is the maintenance of viable community. Life style choices should be respected. Positive freedom should mean the right to live in society where all people are participating active members of society and all have enough to thrive). Socialism, therefore, emphasizes equality of life chances, justice based on the human need, and a broad, inclusive community. There are several small socialist parties in the United States. This is one of the more prominent ones: http://socialistparty-usa.org/ V. Communism A. Introduction Communism, a concept or system of society in which the major resources and means of production, i.e., property are owned by the community rather than by individuals. In theory, such societies provide for equal sharing of all work, according to ability, and all benefits, according to need. Some conceptions of communist societies assume that, ultimately, coercive government would be unnecessary and therefore that such a society would be without rulers. Until the ultimate stages are reached, however, communism involves the abolition of private property by a revolutionary movement; responsibility for meeting public needs is then vested in the state. B. Theory of Communism 1. Karl Marx: Marxism History on railroad tracks, going from station to station (stage of history) Primitive Communism Slave Society Feudalism Capitalism Socialism Communism In primitive, prehistorian tribal society people were forced to cooperate due to the constraints and scarcity of nature. Once people began to acquire property – the weak became enslaved. Slavery gave way to feudalism and the rule of the landed aristocracy over the peasants. The industrial revolution brought about the exploitation of the workers by the owners of production. Principles of Marxism: Societies progress as they move from station to station, towards communism. Progress is inevitable and only in one direction, although the time to go from station to station and the time at each station is not fixed or certain. History is pushed by class conflict and contradictions at each stage. Differences between "socialism" and "communism": o socialism: 8
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Power, Authority, and Exchange – ISS 225 Ideology people are paid according to work state is needed to administer society o communism: people do not need material incentives, are paid according to need society administers itself, the state withers away 2.
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