Prostate PSA and digital rectal exam at age 50 Know table 8 3 pg 153 23

Prostate psa and digital rectal exam at age 50 know

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Prostate- PSA and digital rectal exam at age 50 Know table 8-3 pg 153 23
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Diagnostic Tests Biopsy- removal of living cells Excision – cutting out Aspiration – suction Endoscopy – instrument used for direct visualization of internal body parts Colonoscope Bronchoscope cystoscope Imaging studies: Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging Radioactive isotopes “Hot spot" – the tumor absorbs the isotopes “cold spot” - the tissue around the tumor absorbs the isotopes 24
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Laboratory Tests Prostate‑specific antigen (PSA) used to detect prostate cancer See table 8-3page 154 CBC – used to detect leukemia Tumor markers: Used to confirm a diagnosis, the response to therapy Used to detect a relapse CA 125 – ovarian cancer CA 27-29 – breast cancer Not 100% accurate for diagnosing tumors, because produced by normal cells. Used to confirm diagnosis, response to therapy, or detect relapse 25
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26 Nursing Management After a Cancer Diagnosis: Assessment Thorough physical assessment Psychosocial assessment of the patient and family or significant others: Psychosocial needs Coping abilities and techniques Resources for support and care (Refer to Box 8-2 for common nursing diagnoses for used for patients with cancer.)
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Common Therapies Surgery Prophylaxis – obtain a biopsy Palliative – offering relief Debulking – removing as much as possible Reconstructive – used with women who had a mastectomy Hormone manipulation – giving large amounts of one hormone prevents the uptake of other hormones and slows the progression of the tumor Androgens are used for breast cancer Estrogens used for prostate cancer gynecomastia 27
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Common Therapies Immunotherapy with biologic response modifiers- agents used to manipulate the immune system to control or cure the malignancy with minimal damage to normal cells Interleukins – recognize and destroy abnormal cells Interferon – slow down cell division Colony-stimulating factors – stimulate bone marrow Misc: Vaccines Epogen – stimulate RBC Neupogen – stimulate WBC Bone marrow transplantation – used to correct sever bone marrow damage otherwise the bone marrow cannot replace blood cells and the patient will die 28
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Common Therapies Radiation- destroys malignant cells which are more sensitive than normal cells Kills every cell it comes into contact with (kills when they replicate Normal cells have greater ability to repair DNA damage than malignant cells Ionizing radiation – can work immediately or have a delayed effect The cell dies when it tries to divide or replicate (mitosis) See table 8-4 pg 163 Teletherapy – external Brachytherapy – internal (implanted) 29
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Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing External Radiation Therapy Help the patient cope with the diagnosis of cancer and its treatment with radiation therapy
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