From the theory that „
all fish fly
‰, we narrow it down to collect observations to
address the hypotheses of Â
all guppies are fish
‰ This ultimately leads us to be
able to test the hypotheses with specific data -- a confirmation (or not) that is „
all
guppies fly
‰ which is our original theory.
In deductive reasoning, if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be
must be
must be true.
However, we must take note that for deductive reasoning to be correct, the
hypotheses or premises must be correct.
6.3.6 Inductive Reasoning
Figure 6.4
igure 6.4
igure 6.4
igure 6.4: Inductive reasoning
Source
Source
:
Inductive reasoning works the other way around, moving from some specific
observations about the world to broader generalisations and theories. Informally,
we sometimes call this a "bottom-up" approach. In inductive reasoning, we begin

trianglert
TOPIC 6
CRITICAL THINKING AND REASONING SKILLS
128
a)
What is the difference between deductive and inductive
reasoning?
b)
What are the key types of inductive reasoning?
with specific observations and measures, we start to distinguish patterns and
regularities, articulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally
end up developing some general conclusions or theories.
There are several key types of inductive reasoning (Parrish, 2018):
1)
Generali
Generali
Generalised
ed
ed · Draws a conclusion from a generalization. For example, „All
the swans I have seen are white; therefore, all swans are probably white.‰
2)
Statistical
Statistical
Statistical · Draws a conclusion based on statistics. For example, „95
percent of swans are white‰ (an arbitrary figure, of course); „therefore, a
randomly selected swan will probably be white.‰
3)
Sample
Sample
Sample · Draws a conclusion about one group based on a different sample
group. For example, „There are ten swans in this pond and all are white;
therefore, the swans in my neighbourÊs pond are probably also white.‰
4)
Analogous
Analogous
Analogous · Draws a conclusion based on shared properties of two
groups. For example, „All Aylesbury ducks are white. Swans are similar to
Aylesbury ducks. Therefore, all swans are probably white.‰
5)
Predictive
Predictive
Predictive · Draws a conclusion based on a prediction made using a past
sample. For example, „I visited this pond last year and all the swans were
white. Therefore, when I visit again, all the swans will probably be white.‰
6)
Causal inference
Causal inference
Causal inference · Draws a conclusion based on a causal connection. For
example, „All the swans in this pond are white. I just saw a white bird in
the pond. The bird was probably a swan.‰
In inductive reasoning, if the premises are true, the conclusion is probably
probably
probably
probably true.
ASSESSMENT OF CRITICAL THINKING
How do we know if we can think critically? There are several ways to assess our
critical thinking skills. If you are a teacher or a manager, you could also use the
same method to assess your students or subordinates’ critical thinking abilities.
6.4
SELF CHECK 6.2

TOPIC 6

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