Small space btwn presynaptic terminal button

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– small space btwn presynaptic terminal button & postsynaptic dendritic spine There are synaptic vesicles that package neurotransmitters in presynaptic terminal button
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o Synaptic vesicles – groups of neurotransmitters packaged together and located in terminal button o Neurotransmitter – chemicals released by presynaptic terminal button that acts on postsynaptic cell Activate ion channels on postsynaptic spine by binding to receptor sites Sensory neurons – neurons that help us receive information about world around us Motor neurons – neurons that allow us to initiate movement and behavior, allows us to interact w/ world Interneurons – process sensory input from environment into meaningful representations & connect motor neurons There are 3 main categories of neurons that are defined by its specific structure o (1) Unipolar neurons – ideal for relaying information forward, one neurite (axon) + no dendrites Involved in transmission of physiological info from body’s periphery o (2) Bipolar neurons – involved in sensory perception, one axon + one dendrite Help acquire and pass sensory info to various centers in the brain o (3) Multipolar neurons – most common, communicate sensory and motor info in the brain Consist of one axon + many dendrites that allow them to communicate w/ other neurons Pyramidal neuron – triangular or pyramidal shape of its soma Glia cells are another type of cell in the brain besides neurons o Oligodendroglia – forms myelin sheaths, wrap dendrites around axons many time to form sheath o Microglia and astrocytes – digest debris of dead neurons, carry nutrients from blood vessels to neurons o Glial cells do NOT participate in communication btwn cells like neurons do There are 2 stages of electrochemical action in neurons o (1) Electrical conduction of dendritic input to initiation of action potential within neuron o (2) Chemical transmission across synaptic gap btwn presynaptic neuron & postsynaptic neuron Intracellular fluid & extracellular fluid of neurons is composed of a combination of ions – Na, K, Cl o Proteins span the cell membrane and form ion channels that allow ions to pass There are 2 forces that maintain a steady state when cell is at rest o (1) Diffusion – force on molecules to move from areas of high conc to low conc o (2) Electrostatic pressure – similar charges repel, opposite charges attract Equilibrium potential – diffusion is equal and opposite of electrostatic pressure, no flow of ions o Resting membrane potential – negatively charged around -70 mV
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o More negatively charges inside the cell, more positively charged outside the cell o (1) Anions – highly concentrated inside cell, contribute to negative charge of resting membrane potential Permeable to cell membrane, no ion channels allow anions to move o (2) Potassium – cell membrane is very permeable to K at rest, high concentration INSIDE cell Diffusion pushes K outside cell, electrostatic pressure pushes K inside cell o (3) Chloride – cell membrane is permeable to Cl at rest, high concentration OUTSIDE cell Diffusion pushes Cl inside cell, electrostatic pressure pushes Cl outside cell o (4) Sodium
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