D1-The-Ultimate-Student’s-Guide-to-Preparing-for-the-AP-Spanish-Language-Exam-v2.pdf

Ar verb endings er ir verb endings o amos o emos as

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-AR verb endings -ER / -IR verb endings -o -amos -o -emos -as -áis -es -éis -a -an -e -en Let’s start with the basics: Verb Tenses Present Tense Take the infinitive form of a verb, chop off the last two letters, and add a new ending. It’s that simple! Here’s a simple example: the verb hablar. yo habl o tú habl as él/ella/Ud. habl a nosotros habl amos vosotros habl áis ellos/ellas/Uds. habl an
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The Ultimate AP Spanish Language Grammar Review Guide Cont. 37 Interested in an Albert license? E-mail us at [email protected] Now let’s go to the hard part: Stem Changes and Irregulars Some verbs carry changes in their stems… here are the major patterns and examples. e to ie: querer (yo quiero) o to ue: dormir (él duerme) e to i: servir (tú sirves) i to ie: adquirir (ellos adquieren) u to ue: jugar (ella juega) * Note: stem-changing verbs only carry these changes in the singular forms and the 3 rd person plural form (i.e., yo, tú, él/ella/Ud., ellos/ellas/Uds.). So, the stem remains the same in the nosotros and vosotros forms: nosotros queremos, vosotros jugáis, etc. It is also important to remember the irregular verbs. Here are the most common: Verbs with irregular ‘yo’ form: 1. Dar: doy, das, da, damos, dais*, dan 2. Traer: traigo, traes, trae, traemos, traéis, traen 3. Ver: veo, ves, ve, vemos, veis*, ven 4. Decir: digo, dices, dice, dicemos, dicéis, dicen *note the accent change in vosotros form
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The Ultimate AP Spanish Language Grammar Review Guide Cont. 38 Interested in an Albert license? E-mail us at [email protected] Completely irregular verbs: 1. Ir: voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van 2. Ser: soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son 3. Estar: estoy, estás, está, estamos, estáis, están 4. Tener: tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienen 5. Haber: he, has, ha, hemos, háis, han The Present Participle The present participle (gerundio) is used to convey a progressive action. Think of it as the -ING form of verbs in English. To form the gerundio, simply add -ando (for - AR verbs) or -iendo (for -ER and -IR verbs) to the stem. We use a form of the verb estar + the gerundio to show progressive action. For example: My mother is talking on the phone: Mi madre está hablando por teléfono. If an -ER or - IR verb has vowel before the ending, you must add a ‘y’ to the stem in the past participle. Some common examples: Leer leyendo Traer trayendo Creer creyendo Construir construyendo Oír oyendo The Present Perfect This tense is used to express that you have done something. To form the present perfect, use the following formula: haber + past participle .
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The Ultimate AP Spanish Language Grammar Review Guide Cont. 39 Interested in an Albert license? E-mail us at [email protected] Haber conjugation (present tense): he hemos has habéis ha han To form the past participle, add -ado (for -AR verbs) or -ido (for -ER / -IR verbs) to the stem.
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