It seems that first written laws appear somewhere

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Wrightsman's Psychology and the Legal System
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 2
Wrightsman's Psychology and the Legal System
Greene/Heilbrun
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It seems that first written laws appear somewhere around 3000 BC. The first of the written or codified laws that we know of for certain as fragments or indications of it survive to this day, was the one created by an ancient Sumerian (an early empire that existed in the region between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris rivers) ruler, Ur-Nammu in the 22nd Century BC. We know very little about this ruler or his laws. We know considerably more about a ruler called Hammurabi. Hammurabi was, by all accounts a competent ruler. And he was a very smart guy. He decided around the year 1760BC to collect all his laws in one location and to have it inscribed on to a very durable (and slightly phallic) rock. This rock happens to have survived, pretty much intact to this day and you can go and see it first hand in the famous museum Louvre in Paris. Hammurabi had copies of his laws made and displayed in various parts of his empire. A similar tradition can be seen slightly later in of the early empires on the Indian subcontinent and in other societies. Laws making up the Code of Hammurabi, as the codification, or collection of the laws, is now known as, were rather crude in the sense that they were written in an if-then manner. If you do this, then this will happen. They did not have finesse and were not advanced in their legal structure, for example have no exculpatory considerations, such as lessening the penalty or even acquitting in cases of accidents or inability to understand the consequences of ones actions. Sanctions in the Code would be considered harsh by modern standards. It was almost always “DEATH”! O r it was the principle of talion - eye for an eye. Hammurabi mentions the divine in invoking the laws he made, but the nature of the rules is very much secular. There are 282 laws in total. This law is also considered by some to be a sort of a primitive constitution for the idea of the presumption of innoce nce that states that “everyone is innocent until proven otherwise”.
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Wrightsman's Psychology and the Legal System
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 2
Wrightsman's Psychology and the Legal System
Greene/Heilbrun
Expert Verified
Esad Oruč & Haris Hasić 7 Some further characteristics that represented the Code of Hammurabi are: Laws reflected the ideals of a patriarchal, male dominated society; More important members of society could be punished, however the women or slaves would actually receive the retribution; No distinction was made between an accident and a deliberate action; Some laws focused on restitution, meaning a compensation payment would be made to the victim. Ancient law: Laws of Moses Exodus 34:27 (The Bible): "And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words, for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel;" Laws of Moses, also known as Mosaic laws are the writing of Joshua of "the Law of Moses" on the altar at Mount Ebal. It is directly related to divine provenance, determination and religion and not necessarily to society and social relations as such. Some argue that the laws of Moses are mostly similar to early Sumerian code and the Code of Hammurabi. These laws still maintain major influence through some forms of canon law and other religious law. They are based on the

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