May then see their actions as externally controlled

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May then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing Occurs when someone offers an unnecessary reward beforehand in an obvious effort to control behavior An unanticipated reward does not diminish intrinsic interest People can still attribute their actions to their own motivation If compliments for a good job make us feel more competent and successful increase our intrinsic motivation When rightly administered rewards may also boost creativity To cultivate people’s enjoyment of initially unappealing tasks Use some incentives to coax the desired behavior After the person complies suggest an intrinsic reason for doing so o Taylor (1975) Determined conditions under which people infer their attitudes directly from their behavior See pictures of men 72 female undergraduates were given false physiological feedback which was either consistent or inconsistent with a prior attitude Especially favorable toward one of the men No meeting or will meet some of the men and would have to pick which to invite to a later meeting Rate attractiveness of men Subjects either expected or did not expect the attitude to have important consequences for their future behavior When attitudes were reassessed type of feedback was only weakly related to use of feedback s a basis for one’s attitude Subjects used the feedback as a basis for their attitude only when they expected no future consequences to result from their attitudes More self-perception effects more effect of the feedback When consequences are unimportant - Self-affirmation theory o People often experience a self-image threat After engaging in an undesirable behavior o Can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self o Threaten people’s self-concept in one domain Will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain o Justifying our actions and decisions is self-affirming Protects and supports our sense of integrity and self-worth
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o With their self-concepts restored People felt much less need to justify their acts o people with high and secure self-esteem engage in less self- justification - Dissonance theory vs self-perception theory o Dissonance theory Cannot explain attitude changes that occur without dissonance Does not explain the over-justification effect Can explain what happen when we act contrary to clearly defined attitudes Explains attitude change o Self-perception theory In situations where our attitudes are not well formed Explains attitude formation
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