conflict resolution Identify and describe the features of organizations that help explain differences in organizations’ use of information systems. - Use of hierarchical structure: everyone is accountable to someone and authority is limited to specific actions governed by abstract rules or procedures. - Accountability, authority in system of impartial decision making: These rules create a system of impartial and universal decision making. - Adherence to principle of efficiency: maximizing output using limited inputs. Other - Routines and business processes: Routine is precise rules, procedures, and practices developed to cope with virtually all expected situations .As employees learn these routines, they become highly productive and efficient, and the firm is able to reduce its costs over time as efficiency increases. - Organizational politics, culture, environments and structures: Organizational politics: divergent viewpoints lead to political struggle, competition, and conflict. Political resistance greatly hampers organizational change. Organizational culture: encompasses set of assumptions that define goal and product. Organizational environments: organizations and environments have a reciprocal relationship. Organizations are open to, and dependent on, the social and physical environment. Organizations can influence their environments. Describe the major economic theories that help explain how information systems affect organizations. IT changes both the relative costs of capital and the costs of information. Information systems technology can be viewed as a factor of production that can be substituted for traditional capital and labor. As the cost of information technology decreases, it is
substituted for labor, which historically has been a rising cost. As the cost of information technology decreases, it also substitutes for other forms of capital such as buildings and machinery, which remain relatively expensive. IT also obviously affects the cost and quality of information and changes the economics of information. Information technology helps firms contract in size because it can reduce transaction costs(the cost of participating in markets). Describe the major behavioral theories that help explain how information systems affect organizations. IT Flattens Organizations: IT pushes decision-making rights lower in the organization because lower-level employees receive the information they need to make decisions without supervision. Because managers now receive so much more accurate information on time, they become much faster at making decisions, so fewer managers are required. Postindustrial Organizations : Postindustrial theories based more on history and sociology than economics also support the notion that IT should flatten hierarchies.
- Spring '17
- Rabia FAisal