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The difference in the position of an object as seen by the left and right retinas.relative motionA movement to frame of reference.relative brightnessBrighter objects appear closer than duller things.linear perspectiveConvergence of parallel lines creating impressions of increasing distance.Ex: drawing 3D in art classtexture gradientThe surface features of an object become smaller and less detailed themore distant an object becomes.olfactoryThe sense of smell.delayed reinforcersReinforcer doesn't occur until a brief time after the behavior occursextrinsic motivationa desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishmentoperant conditioninglearn from trying it, response first then stimulusex: touching a stovetype of learning where behavior is strengthen when its followed by reinforcement and weakened when followed by punishmentdiscriminative stimulusAn antecedent stimulus that signals the likelihood of certain consequences if a response is madepositive reinforcementIncreasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.negative reinforcementThings that strengthen the response if they are removed after the response occursex: annoying seat belt alert-put your seatbelt on- alert goes away; taking aspirinpunishmentoccurs when an even following a response weakens the tendency to make that response, presentation of aversive stimuluse.g., timeoutprimary reinforcer
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (known since birth)secondary reinforcerAny neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic value for an organismbut that becomes rewarding when linked with a primary reinforcer (learn later on in life)REM sleeprapid eye movement1 hour after falling asleepreturn to stage 3 then to stage 2narcolepsydaytime sleep disorder; drop into REM suddenlycircadian rhythmspsychological processes that repeat about every 24 hoursinsomniatied to mental distress: psychiatric patients sleep less than nonpsychiatric patientssleep apneastop breathing hundreds of times throughout the night and wake up just in time to resumeSIDSsudden stop in breathing and suffocation. 28-52% due to accidental suffocationnightmaresfrightening dreams in REMnight terrorawake to scream and stay awake in fear for about 30 minutes and not remember the episode the next daysleepwalkingNREM; okay to awaken them; usually with childrenREM disorderparalysis doesn't work so people may indeed act out their dreams. Verydangerous, drugs may helpdepressantsslow body functions, calm neural activityAlcohol (depressant)increases dopamine levels,inhibiting brain tactivity that controls judgement and inhibitions, can increase both harmful tendencies and helpful tendenciesdoes not impair longterm or shortterm memoryreduces self-awarenessfocuses attention on immediate situation and away from future consequences