The Polish diplomats sincerely gave the Americans multiple opportunities to

The polish diplomats sincerely gave the americans

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The Polish diplomats sincerely gave the Americans multiple opportunities to save face in Vietnam, the Americans continued to mistrust because of U.S. anti-communist stance and the negotiations were not successful. In fact, everyone involved in the diplomatic initiatives were at fault for the failures of all the attempts to bring peace into Southeast Asia. The Polish initiatives would have been successful if all of the parties involved had not followed their own interests. The Polish diplomats Maneli, Lewandowski and Michałowski were betrayed while in Southeast Asia because their initiatives were not taken seriously and many events occurred that prevented any progress from happening. All of them were became scapegoats. Overall, the Poles were acting on their own accord even though they were supervised by the Soviet Union. Their intentions were good to provide peace within the region and their aim was not to search for fame or glory. The Cold War was a turbulent era in which the communists were viewed as a threat but the Poles provided the most efficient initiatives to promote peace in an unpopular conflict.
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Bibliography 1.) Biskupski, Mieczyslaw B. The History of Poland, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000. 2.) Gnoinska, Margaret K., Poland and Vietnam, 1963: New Evidence on Secret Communist Diplomacy and the “Maneli Affair.” Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2005. 3.) Herring, George C., America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975 . 4 th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. 4.) Herring, George C., ed. The Secret Diplomacy of the Vietnam War: The Negotiating Volumes of the Pentagon Papers . Austin: University of Texas, 1983. 5.) Hershberg, James G., and L.W. Gluchowski, “Who Murdered ‘Marigold’: New Evidence on the Mysterious Failure of Poland’s Secret Initiative to Start U.S.-North Vietnamese Peace Talks, 1966,” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 27 (2000): 1-106, accessed October 1, 2011. 6.) Lukowski, Jerzy and Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 7.) Margaret K Gnoinska. “Poland and the Cold War in East and Southeast Asia, 1949- 1965” (M.A. diss., The George Washington University, 2002). 8.) McNamara, Robert S., with Brian VanDeMark. In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam . New York: Times Books, 1995. 9.) National Archives and Records Administration, Pentagon Papers , Part VI.C.2, . 10.) Rusk, Dean, As I Saw It , New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1990.
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11.) Thies, Wallace J., When Governments Collide: Coercion and Diplomacy in the Vietnam Conflict 1964-1968, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. 12.) Zhai, Qiang, China and the Vietnam Wars, 1950-1975 , Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. 13.) U.S. State Department Office of the Historian, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968, Volume III.Vietnam.1965.274, 14.) U.S. State Department Office of the Historian, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968, Volume IV.Vietnam.1966 .354, 15.) U.S. State Department Office of the Historian,
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