Moral Reasoning -Considered certain kinds of reasons: That is to say- moral reasons -It tries to arrive at the best moral reasons for acting -As a result, it aids in choosing the morally right course of action Value Theory -Value theory is that part of moral philosophy that focuses on questions about what is intrinsically valuable (good in and of itself). That’s because what is intrinsically valuable is worth pursuing for its own sake and a good human life will contain much that meets this description. -Happiness is on almost everyone’s list-the real question is whether or not happiness is the only thing that is desirable for its own sake, or whether there are other things that belong on the roster of essential elements that constitute a good human life- The Principle of Utility (The Principle of Happiness), Moral Virtue (Eudaimonia), Moral Duty (Categorical Imperative), Virtue Ethics (Ethics of Caring). -Another important view claims that our lives are good to the extent that we get what we want- whatever we want. Still, other accounts offer a variety of intrinsic goods rather than just one or two. Moral Absolutism -Moral absolutism is the ethical belief that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged that certain actions are right or wrong, regardless of the context of the act. For instance: no lying, no stealing, no cheating, no robbing, no raping, red-light green-light. -Looking at things this way, actions are inherently moral or immoral, regardless of the beliefs and goals of the individual, the society of the culture that engages in the actions. -It is rooted in the idea that morals are inherent in the laws of the universe, the nature of humanity, the will of God or some other fundamental source. Moral Relativism -Moral relativism: holds that moral truths are not absolutely true but true relative to some particular standards. There are two versions of moral relativism. -Cultural relativism: holds that moral truths are not absolutely true but are relative to a particular
society. In other words, whether an act is right or wrong depends on the moral values of a particular society and not on an absolute standard.