Key Concept 7.2:Innovations in communications and technology contributed to the growth of mass culture, while significant changes occurred in internal and international migration patterns.I.Popular culture grew in influence in U.S. society, even as debates increased over the effects of culture on public values, morals, and American national identity. A) New forms of mass media, such as radio and cinema, contributed to the spread of national culture as well as greater awareness of regional cultures. B) Migration gave rise to new forms of art and literature that expressed ethnic and regional identities, such the Harlem Renaissance movement. C) official restrictions on freedom of speech grew during World War I, as increased anxiety about radicalism led to a Red Scare and attacks on labor activism and immigrant culture.D) In the 1920s, cultural and political controversies emerged as Americans debated gender roles, modernism, science, religion, and issues related to race and immigration. II.Economic pressures, global events, and political developments caused sharp variations in the numbers, sources, and experiences of both international and internal migrants. A) Immigration from Europe reached its peak in the years before World War I. During and after World War I, nativist campaigns against some ethnic groups led to the passage of quotas that restricted immigration, particularly from southern and eastern Europe, and increased barriers to Asian immigration. B) The increased demand for war production and labor during World War I and World War II and the economic difficulties of the 1930s led many Americans to migrate to urban centers in search of economic opportunities. C) In a Great Migration during and after World War I, African Americans escaping segregation, racial violence, and limited economic opportunity in the South moved to the North and West, where they found new opportunities but still encountered discrimination. D) Migration to the United States from Mexico and elsewhere in
the Western Hemisphere increased, in spite of contradictory government policies toward Mexican immigration. Key Concept 7.3:Participation in a series of global conflicts propelled the United States into a position of international power while renewing domestic debates over the nation’s proper role in the world.I.In the late 19th century and early 20th century, new U.S. territorial ambitions and acquisitions in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific accompanied heightened public debates over America’s role in the world. A) Imperialists cited economic opportunities, racial theories, competition with European empires, and the perception in the 1890s that the Western frontier was “closed” to argue that Americans were destined to expand their culture and institutions to peoples around the globe.
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