argued, a French ad for Italian sauce and pasta is not simply presenting a product but is producing a myth about Italian culture—the concept of “Italianicity.”3This message, wrote Barthes, is not for Italians, but is specificallyabout a French concept of Italian culture. Similarly, one could argue that thecontemporary concepts of beauty and thinness naturalize certain culturalnorms of appearance as being universal. These norms constitute a myth inBarthes’s terms, because they are historically and culturally specific, not“natural.”Barthes’s concepts of myth and connotation are particularly useful in exam-ining notions of photographic truth. Among the range of images produced bycameras, there are cultural meanings that affect our expectations and uses ofimages. We do not, for example, bring the same expectations about the rep-resentation of truth to newspaper photographs that we do to television newsimages or to film images that we view in a movie theater. A significant differ-ence among these forms is their relationship to time and their ability to bewidely reproduced. Whereas conventional photographs and films need to bedeveloped and printed before they can be viewed and reproduced, the elec-tronic nature of television images means that they are instantly viewable andcan be transmitted around the world live. As moving images, cinematic andtelevision images are combined with sound and music in narrative forms, andtheir meaning often lies in the sequence of images rather than its individualframes.