What needs and values explain both criminal and

Info iconThis preview shows pages 5–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
What needs and values explain both criminal and noncriminal behavior? Do you think crime is not explained by those needs and values because those needs and values also explain non-criminal behavior? HYPOTHESES: A PERSON IS MORE LIKELY TO COMMIT CRIME IF HE OR SHE HAS DELINQUENT FRIENDS (KUBRIN ET AL., 2009)? A PERSON IS MORE LIKELY TO COMMIT CRIME IF FAMILY MEMBERS COMMIT CRIME (KUBRIN ET AL., 2009)? RESEARCH A hypothesized relationship: Delinquent peers →Definitions to Crime→ Delinquency RESEARCH MUCH OF THE RESEARCH LOOKS AT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DELINQUENT PEERS AND DELINQUENCY TYPICALLY FIND A STRONG RELATIONSHIP MOST OF THE RESEARCH DOES NOT INCLUDE MEASURE OF DEFINITIONS UNFAVORABLE TO CRIME IN ADDITION –THE ISSUE OF CAUSAL ORDER IS STILL VERY MUCH IN DOUBT POSSIBLE RECIPROCAL EFFECT Delinquent peers →Definitions favorable to crime→ Delinquency Delinquency →Definitions favorable to Crime→ Delinquent peers SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY 1966 BURGESS AND AKERS ADDRESSING SOME OF THE PROBLEMS WITH DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY SPECIFYING THE PROCESS BY WHICH PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR ARE LEARNED. MAKING THE LEARNING PROCESS MORE EASILY UNDERSTOOD MAKE THE PROPOSITIONS MORE TESTABLE THE FOUR BASIC CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY 1. DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION 2. DEFINITIONS 3. DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT 4. IMITATION 1. DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION DIRECT AND INDIRECT EXPOSURE. ASSOCIATIONS WITH OTHERS AND DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF NORMS OF VALUES
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
THE GROUPS OF ASSOCIATION PROVIDE THE MAJOR CONTEXT IN WHICH THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL LEARNING WORKS THESE GROUPS ARE A MODEL AND REINFORCEMENT FOR BEHAVIOR WHO ARE THESE GROUPS? PRIMARY GROUPS: FAMILY AND FRIENDS SECONDARY AND REFERENCE GROUPS: NEIGHBORS, SCHOOL TEACHER, LAW AND AUTHORITY FIGURES, CHURCHES, AND MASS MEDIA 2. DEFINITIONS THE INDIVIDUALS ATTITUDES OR MEANINGS LINKED TO THE BEHAVIOR AS RIGHT OR WRONG, GOOD OR BAD, DESIRABLE OR UNDESIRABLE, JUSTIFIED OR UNJUSTIFIED THESE DEFINITIONS REINFORCE BEHAVIOR AND ARE PROMPTS FOR BEHAVIOR THE MORE POSITIVE DEFINITIONS A PERSON HAS FOR A BEHAVIOR , THE MORE LIKELY THEY WILL ENGAGE IN A BEHAVIOR 3. DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT “THE BALANCE OF ANTICIPATED OR ACTUAL REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS THAT FOLLOW OR ARE CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR” (AKERS AND SELLERS, 2009, P.91-92) WHETHER AN INDIVIDUAL WILL COMMIT OR NOT COMMIT A CRIME DEPENDS REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS AKERS AND SELLERS, 2009: THE LIKELIHOOD THAT AN ACTION WILL OCCUR DEPENDS ON: Positive reinforcement: “the presentation of a stimulus that increases or maintains a response” Example: people steal because of the reward—money or other objects Negative reinforcement: “the removal or reduction of a stimulus whose removal or reduction increases or maintains a response” Example: aversive stimulus (seat belt noise) HOW REINFORCEMENT HAS BEEN MEASURE:
Background image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page5 / 7

What needs and values explain both criminal and noncriminal...

This preview shows document pages 5 - 7. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online