NURS 1004 Final Exam Notes.docx

Muscular atrophy is the wasting or decrease in size

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Muscular atrophy is the wasting or decrease in size or physiological activity of the muscle due to disease or other influences. ROM exercises help greatly to prevent this from happening to a client. Performing ROM The nurse will explain the procedure to the client The nurse will instruct the client to indicate if pain or discomfort occurs during the exercises The nurse will maintain good body mechanics Each movement is repeated 5 times The joint is moved slowly and smoothly Joints will be adequately supported The nurse will monitor the client closely for pain, SOB, intolerance The nurse will encourage and praise the client as needed Exercises will be completed from head-to-toe
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Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force exerted on the walls of an artery by the pulsing blood under pressure from the heart. Blood flows through the circulatory system because of pressure changes, moving from high pressure to low pressure. Systemic or Arterial Pressure in the system of arteries in the body is a good indicator of cardiovascular health. The standard unit of measurement for blood pressure is mmHg or millimeters of Mercury. The height to which the blood pressure can raise a column of mercury. Systolic Blood Pressure SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is the pressure that the blood exerts on the walls when the heart is contracting. The heart’s contraction forces blood under high pressure into the aorta. The peak of maximum pressure occurs with the ejection of the blood. Diastolic Blood Pressure DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is the pressure the blood exerts in the arteries when the heart relaxes. When the ventricles relax the blood remaining in the arteries exert a minimum or diastolic pressure. This is the minimum pressure exerted against the arterial walls at all times. Pulse Pressure The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure is called the pulse pressure Ex. 120/80 the pulse pressure is 40 This parameter has been considered as a potential indicator of cardiovascular disease, given its relationship to compliance or stiffening of the arteries – the higher the pulse pressure, the increased risk of cardiac disease. Factors Affecting Blood Pressure AGE blood pressure varies throughout life it is lower in childhood, larger children(ht & wt) have higher BP BP varies according to body size into adolescents Average Blood Pressure for Age Newborn (average, 3000 g) 40(mean) 1 month 85/54 1 year 95/65 6 year 105/65
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10–13 years 110/65 14–17 years 120/75 >18 <120/80 An adult's blood pressure tends to increase with advancing age. The optimal blood pressure for a healthy, middle-aged adult is lower than 120/80. Systolic values of 130 to 139 and diastolic values of 85 to 89 are considered high normal Older adults may have a rise in systolic pressure that is related to decreased vessel elasticity; however, blood pressure higher than 140/90 is defined as hypertension and increases an older adult's risk for hypertension-related illness.
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