Beginning of end to capitulationsnot successful until

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Beginning of end to capitulations—not successful until 1915 (and Luasan)Land Code of 1858Provisions1.Cadastral Survey2.Establishment of the Tapu Land Registry3.End of Communal Land ownership and provisions to establish private ownership in landFebruary 12, 2008THEENCOUNTERWITHEUROPE– THECOLONIALERA(NATIONALISMANDCOLONIALISM)EUROPEANDTHEORIENTALQUESTIONEuropean powers, including the Central Allies of the Ottomans (Germany and Austro-Hungary) viewed the Ottoman Empire as an easy pretty on the eve of WWIIt was defended in order to control it (e.g. during the campaign of Muhammad Ali)The Levant was seen through Orientalist eyesThe Noble Arab – Richard Burton and the Arabian NightsEunichs in Top KaiTHELEVANTSEENTHROUGHORIENTALISTEYES
The capitulations established privileged treatment for European merchants and emissariesThe postal servicesThe Levant as the Holy LandObsession on the Cultural level with the Ottoman Empire as the source of exoticism: Harem, Eunuchs, Coffeehouses, and the Spice tradeBut also the source of danger: The Turk as the man with the knife coming to steal you daughterBy contrast the Arabs were seen as Noble Primitives—Ennobled by Edward Lane, Richard Burton, Gertrude Bell and T.E. LawrenceTHEHUSSEINMACMAHONCORRESPONDENCEBeginning in 1915 the British made promises for Arab independence to Sh. Hussein if they join the Allies against the OttomansSherif Hussein has already supported the Ottoman against the house of Ibn Saud (Wahhabis) in the war of 1910PRINCEFAISAL, TE LAWRENCEANDHAIDERRUSTUMFaisal leads nationalist movementFights Ottoman Empire in the South (e.g. disrupts trains by attacking railroads)THREEBRITISHACCORDSTHATCHANGEDTHEFACEOFTHEMIDDLEEASTTHEHIJAZIALLIANCEThe 1915 Alliance between Britain and the Sherif Hussein of Mecca (Negotiated by Sir McMahon in Cairo) promising Syria as an independent Arab state under the Hashemite sin return for Hussein joining the Allies against IstanbuloTHESYKES-PICOTAGREEMENTDivided territory in the Middle EastSecret Alliance between France and BritainTHEBALFOURDECLARATION1917Stated British support of a Zionist stateROOTSOFMODERNARABNATIONALISMReaction of Osmanlilik nationalism and the rise of the Turanic movementRole of Minorities who wanted where alienated by resurgent caliphateYa’coub Sanu in Egypt Abu NaddharaShidyaq in Istanbul al Jawa’ib and Ottoman ArabismAl-Bustani brothers in Greater SyriaShibly Shmayyil and Arab DarwinismJurgi Zeidan and Islam as a pan-Arab secular cultureTRAJECTORIESOFARABNATIONALISMPan Arab Nationalism championed by Syrian Notables and the Hasmites after WWIRegionalism Nationalism emerged from de factor colonial division after Sykes Picot

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