But it is necessary to improve above properties

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But it is necessary to improve above properties without changing the inherent natural qualities of cotton. It is possible by achieving the maximum penetration of polymer particles into fi bre structure and increasing its effectiveness at lowest possible concentration. The decrease in particle size or reducing the viscosity of its Advances in Nanotextile Finishes An Approach Towards Sustainability 17
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solution helps to improve the penetration of chitosan solution. Reduction in con- centration of normal chitosan in solution, however, may reduce its effectiveness and larger chain does not permit its entry into the yarn/cellulose structure. The only possible way is to reduce the particle size, which, in addition to decrease in vis- cosity, offers greater surface area and hence increases the effectiveness of chitosan. It forms the basis of the nanotechnology concept. The potential applications of nanochitosan are well demonstrated in medical fi eld particularly in controlled drug delivery systems (Chattopadhyay and Inamdar 2009 ; El-Tahlawy 1999 ; Zhang et al. 2003 ). But, their applications in textiles have not yet been well studied. The practical application of such nanochitosan to textiles at shop fl oor level demands suitable technology for the production of nanochitosan dispersions, characterization and the analysis of stability of standing baths. Therefore, attempt has been made to set a simple methodology to produce nanochitosan by ionotropic gelation with pentasodium tripolyphosphate. Chitosans of different molecular weights are obtained by controlled depolymerization of parent chitosan using nitrous acid hydrolysis, and these products are subsequently used for the synthesis of nanochitosan. The fi nal results of many basic experiments after getting the con- fi rmation of reproducibility are given herein. A representative concentration of 1gpL is, therefore, only reported and discussed here to make it as brief as possible and to avoid presenting less important data. The in fl uence of particle size on different properties of nanochitosan-treated cotton fabric, like appearance, stiffness, absorbency, dyeing behaviour, and wrinkle recovery, has been explained. SEM images of nanochitosan-treated cotton fabric have also been analysed. 7.3 Technical Details The following materials have been used 100 % cotton fabric ready for dyeing stage Certain class of direct dyes Chitosan (CHT1), having degree of deacetylation (DAC) 90 % and viscosity 22 cPs Dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU) and other chemicals such as sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), acetic acid, sodium nitrite, sodium acetate (anhydrous), and sodium hydroxide used were of analytical grade. Chitosans with various molecular weight grades have been fi rst obtained by depolymerization of CHT1 by nitrous acid hydrolysis method, which have been employed for the preparation of nanochitosan dispersions as described elsewhere (Tiwari and Gharia 2003 ). In general, chitosan was dissolved in acetic acid solution, and an optimized quantity of TPP was added drop-wise with rapid stirring (about 400 rpm) to obtain an opalescent solution. The sample was allowed to stand
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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