Usually in the MILD range b. Looks a lot like Autism Spectrum Disorder 3. Genetic (inherited) Disorders: Phenylketoneuria (PKU) unable to metabolize phenylaline and amino acid in food; builds up, causing ID. g. ID: Environmental Risk Factors (before, during, and after birth) Critical is the Prental i. Infections (at birth or after birth) 1. Rubella, HIV infection, Meningitis. Bacterial infections ii. Exposure to toxins 1. Intrauterine exposure to drugs; lead/mercury iii. Trauma 1. Infant head injury, fetal hypoxia, brain hemorrhage iv. Environmental Deprivation (post birth can lead to deprivation) 1. Range: from less stimulation to extremely deprived/abusive environments 2. Malnutrition 3. Maternal Age (specifically with down syndrome for women over the age of 35) 1 in 100 women 40. 1 in 1000 with women 30-40 h. ID: Normal Genetic Variation i. Cultural-Familial Mental Retardation 1. ID that is due to a combination of genetic and psychosocial factors a. Clusters in low socioeconomic groups due to shared environmental factors b. Clusters in families due to genetic factors ii. Reaction Range 1. Genetics determine range. Environment determines whether individual will be able to experience full potential 2. Environment determines to what extent individuals fulfill genetic potential i. ID: Prevention (Very high levels of comorbidity) externalization behavior, ADHD. Comorbidity completely unidirectional. ID causes other behaviors i. Primary Prevention (targeted toward entire population) 1. Health care measures, amniocentesis, educational programs about substance use and maternal health care ii. Secondary Prevention (targeted toward members of high risk groups) 1. Educational programs like Head Start iii. Tertiary Prevention (early intervention for individuals with signs of ID)
1. Assessment a. Medical Screening b. Social assessments of learning and academic potential j. ID: Treatment i. Skill building, occupational training 1. Deinstitutionalization and mainstreaming ii. Treatment of comorbid conditions iii. Outcomes 1. Depends on severity of ID and access to resources
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- Spring '14
- Down syndrome, Intelligence quotient, Mental retardation