in relation to participation by those charged with governance is therefore

In relation to participation by those charged with

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in relation to participation by those charged with governance is therefore influenced by such matters as: Their independence from management and their ability to evaluate the actions of management. Whether they understand the entity’s business transactions. The extent to which they evaluate whether the financial statements are prepared in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. A69. An active and independent board of directors may influence the philosophy and operating style of senior management. However, other elements may be more limited in their effect. For example, although human resource policies and practices directed toward hiring competent financial, accounting, and IT personnel may reduce the risk of errors in processing financial information, they may not mitigate a strong bias by top management to overstate earnings.
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PSA 315 (Redrafted)A70. The existence of a satisfactory control environment can be a positive factor when the auditor assesses the risks of material misstatement. However, although it may help reduce the risk of fraud, a satisfactory control environment is not an absolute deterrent to fraud. Conversely, weaknesses in the control environment may undermine the effectiveness of controls, in particular in relation to fraud. For example, management’s failure to commit sufficient resources to address IT security risks may adversely affect internal control by allowing improper changes to be made to computer programs or to data, or unauthorized transactions to be processed. As explained in PSA 330, the control environment also influences the nature, timing, and extent of the auditor’s further procedures. A71. The control environment in itself does not prevent, or detect and correct, a material misstatement. It may, however, influence the auditor’s evaluation of the effectiveness of other controls (for example, the monitoring of controls and the operation of specific control activities) and thereby, the auditor’s assessment of the risks of material misstatement. Considerations Specific to Smaller Entities A72. The control environment within small entities is likely to differ from larger entities. For example, those charged with governance in small entities may not include an independent or outside member, and the role of governance may be undertaken directly by the owner-manager where there are no other owners. The nature of the control environment may also influence the significance of other controls, or their absence. For example, the active involvement of an owner-manager may mitigate certain of the risks arising from a lack of segregation of duties in a small business; it may, however, increase other risks, for example, the risk of override of controls. A73. In addition, audit evidence for elements of the control environment in smaller entities may not be available in documentary form, in particular where communication between management and other personnel may be informal, yet effective. For example, small entities might not have a written code of conduct 33
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