All the people that you know and interact with

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- All the people that you know and interact with, probably about 250-400 people - Granovetter - people find jobs via their network a lot of the time - Strong vs. weak ties - unlike the belief that it is your close ties that get you your jobs (friends and family), Granovetter found that your distant ties are often more successful - Reason: You and your close ties share a lot of the same information because you are in the same social cluster, which is not true of distant ties - Organizations : Social groups that form to achieve a specific set of goals - Allows a number of people to work together and combine their knowledge and effort to pursue a set of goals - Weber : Believed that the emergence of powerful political and economic organizations contributed to Europe as the world’s leading power (militaries, corporations, states) - Bureaucracy: How Weber describes modern organizations - Weber believed bureaucracies to be the pinnacle / ideal of human organization - Complete subordination of the individual to the organization, perfect coordination for corporate coherance and action - Types of organization: religious, educational, family, economic, political - Institutions : Organizations are a type of institution, but only some are vice-versa - Have four common characteristics - Sets of norms prescribing how individuals should act - Endure over time - Enforced by some form of sanction - Organize human relation in pursuit of some function - Deviance - A type of social action and is linked to an important substantive area in sociology: Criminology - Definition: Actions that break norms, that stray from the usual - Deviant behavior commonly causes observers to be confused, angry, bothered, appalled - Norms vary from place to place and depending on the context, there are few if any universally deviant behaviors - Because norms change, ideas of deviance change - Men with long hair, piercings, no longer deviant - not watching where you’re walking, etc. - Punishment - Because it acuses negative sentiments, there are often collective efforts to limit deviance - Informal Sanctions : Mild punishment that is a socially accepted response, not formal (different ways to show disfavor include verbal critique, ostracism, etc.) - Formal Sanctions : Established rules to punish (judicial system, admin, etc.) - Causes of deviance
- Attention? Deviant counterculture - goths, revolutionaries, neglected kids - Pressure - peer pressure to be part of a gang, to cut class - Ignorance - individuals might not know norms.. tourists, recent immigrants - Socialization - might be socialized by family to act contrary to dominant norms - Perspectives of Deviance - The theoretical perspectives have different views of edviance - Symbolic Interactionism - we learn what is acceptable and what is deviant from our social interactions - We see how others act - We define our self-concept based on reactions of others Functionalist Perspective of Deviance - Why people act deviantly - lack of solidarity, not integrated into society - Deviance can be positive or negative - Negative: Shows weakening/breakdown of social order -

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