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-All the people that you know and interact with, probably about 250-400 people-Granovetter - people find jobs via their network a lot of the time-Strong vs. weak ties - unlike the belief that it is your close ties that get you your jobs (friends and family), Granovetter found that yourdistant ties are often more successful-Reason: You and your close ties share a lot of the same information because you are in the same social cluster, which is not true of distant ties-Organizations: Social groups that form to achieve a specific set of goals-Allows a number of people to work together and combine their knowledge and effort to pursue a set of goals-Weber: Believed that the emergence of powerful political and economic organizations contributed to Europe as the world’s leading power (militaries, corporations, states)-Bureaucracy: How Weber describes modern organizations-Weber believed bureaucracies to be the pinnacle / ideal of human organization-Complete subordination of the individual to the organization, perfect coordination for corporate coherance and action-Types of organization: religious, educational, family, economic, political-Institutions: Organizations are a type of institution, but only some are vice-versa-Have four common characteristics-Sets of norms prescribing how individuals should act-Endure over time-Enforced by some form of sanction-Organize human relation in pursuit of some function-Deviance-A type of social action and is linked to an important substantive area in sociology: Criminology-Definition: Actions that break norms, that stray from the usual-Deviant behavior commonly causes observers to be confused, angry, bothered, appalled-Norms vary from place to place and depending on the context, there are few if any universally deviant behaviors-Because norms change, ideas of deviance change-Men with long hair, piercings, no longer deviant - not watching where you’re walking, etc.-Punishment-Because it acuses negative sentiments, there are often collective efforts to limit deviance-Informal Sanctions: Mild punishment that is a socially accepted response, not formal (different ways to show disfavor include verbal critique, ostracism, etc.)-Formal Sanctions: Established rules to punish (judicial system, admin, etc.)-Causesof deviance
-Attention? Deviant counterculture - goths, revolutionaries, neglected kids-Pressure - peer pressure to be part of a gang, to cut class-Ignorance - individuals might not know norms.. tourists, recent immigrants-Socialization - might be socialized by family to act contrary to dominant norms -Perspectives of Deviance-The theoretical perspectives have different views of edviance-Symbolic Interactionism - we learn what is acceptable and what is deviant from our social interactions-We see how others act-We define our self-concept based on reactions of othersFunctionalist Perspective of Deviance-Why people act deviantly - lack of solidarity, not integrated into society-Deviance can be positive or negative-Negative: Shows weakening/breakdown of social order-