Postconversational level morality based on abstract

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postconversational level – morality based on abstract principles-Carol Gilligan’s moral theory suggested that males and females make moral decisions differently-boys use morality of justice – a morality based on the rule of law-girls use morality of care – a morality that enables them to make moral decisions by a standard of how best to care for individuals-agents of socialization are the people and groups that shape our self-concept, beliefs and behavior-family-social class-neighborhood-religion
-education-media-families have different parenting styles-authoritative style– a parenting style in which parents listen to their children’s input while consistently enforcing the parent’s rules-permissive style– a parenting style in which parents provide high levels of support but an inconsistent enforcement of rules-authoritarian style – a parenting style with which children experience high levels of social control but low levels of emotional support-resocialization is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors and abandoning old ones-resocialization is used in total institutions-total institutions are places in which the most effective forms of resocialization can occur because they isolate people from outside influences so they can be controlled – total institutions have these characteristics:-there is one authority, and activities take place in specific locations-carefully structured activities control the participants-authorities carefully screen all information from outside the institution-rules and roles are clearly defined-a strict hierarchy exists within the institution-total institutions restrict individual choices-social class also affects socialization-Melvin Kohn’s research found that working class parents focus on obedience to authority when socializing children-middle class parents in contrast showed greater concern about the motivations for their children’s behavior-opportunities such as participation in little league sports, music lessons, art lessons, summer camp are affected by social class-the neighborhood you live in also influences socialization-children who grow up in more affluent neighborhoods often do better in school-poorer neighborhoods on average have higher rates of crime, teenage pregnancy, drug use, and high school drop outs-William J. Wilson argued that there are fewer role models in poor communities-religion is also important in socialization-Charles Tittle and Michael Welch found that the more religious the juvenile, the less likely he or she is to be a delinquent-religion is important in socializing beliefs, values, and behavior-schools teach more than academic skills-they socialize students using the hidden curriculum-schools teach values promoting citizenship, by setting regulations, how to deal with peers-mass media including television, radio, movies, books, magazines, and the internet influences socialization-the media transmits values and attitudes-sex roles are also influenced by the media, sometimes in negative ways-according to

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