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Havana, where he persuaded some Jesuits that he would help them establish a Christian mission among his own people on the North American mainland. In 1570, less than a week after the Jesuits and their Indian convert had settled in Virginia, don Luis returned to his own people and customs. He scandalized the Jesuits by taking several wives, a privilege of Indian men of high rank. The Jesuits had expected don Luis to act as an intermediary with his people, securing them supplies and favorable treat-ment, so they threatened to bring the wrath of Spain down upon him. Paquiquineo had learned too much about Europeans during his time among them to doubt their ability to do this. He knew that his people had to act quickly if they were to act at all. The Powhatans killed eight of the nine people at the mission. According· to Indian custom, a young boy named Alonso was spared. although don Luis apparently argued for his death also. Knowing that the Spanish would someday return, he wanted no witnesses. As don Luis predicted, the Spanish did come back. They retrieved Alonso, through him or-dered don Luis to appear for an inquest, and began executing other Indians when he failed to appear. Don Luis never returned to the Spanish, and in frustration, they sailed home. In 1607 the English planted their first permanent colony on the mainland atJamestown among people who were kin to don Luis's people. Throughout the seventeenth century, the English heard rumors about a Powhatan Indian who had spent time in the Spanish colonies.
Pursuing Wealth and Glory Along the North American Shore 35 During this period of American history, no sharp geographic or cultural line separated the Indians and Europeans. Indians such as don Luis lived among the Europeans, a~d Euro-peans such as Alonso spent time with the Indians. Even before permanent colonies were established, each group thus knew the other moderately well. Although the customs and practices of the other group often seemed odd and even ungodly, they were never com-pletely alien. By the time actual settlements were established, there were usually already people who could act as go-betweens. Pursuing Wealth and Glory Along the North American Shore The search for wealth and prestige soon propelled other European nations to cross the Atlantic. In the minds of European leaders, riches, glory, and power were almost insepa-rable. As the English explorer Sir Walter Raleigh explained, "Whosoever commands the sea commands the trade; whosoever commands the trade of the world commands the riches of the world, and consequently the world itself." Most of the North American colonies established by European nations in the first half of the seventeenth century were outposts in the global economy. Despite significant differences, these colonies all shared certain elements: First, they were intended to bring in the greatest amount of revenue to the mother country at the lowest cost. Second, success depended on harmonious relations with-or elimination of-local Indians. Third, colonial societies