● Wilderness in American ● Red, White, and Black (Book) ○ Diversity of various American culture. Tribes and Great Lake region ○ His speculation of population count is lower than Steinbergs ○ “What we do know about pre-Columbia is far outweighed by what we don’t know” ● Diversity ○ America was diverse. Very urban populations, had settlements, cities, infrastructure, organization ○ Nomads had no development on land because they were always on the move ○ Environmental manipulation (creating swamps) ○ Nomads did not generate surplus because they were on the go ○ Religions had often reflected that ■ Apologized to animals after killing them, but used every part of the animal ■ Less materialistic than Europeans ● Territorial claims 1
○ Land ownership ■ East of the mississippi river - Native Americans knew their territory but did not have definitive boundaries (lines drawn) but landmarks ■ War would break out if there was territorial disputes ■ Native American land ownership was different than European, where the European concept was more specific (who owns water, land, trees, etc.) ● Spanish Catholics ○ Spanish Catholics were looking for anything (Asia first and then gold) and found gold and silver in large quantities ○ But also came with the idea to convert colonized people to their religion and culture (changing religion from many gods to one and learning to speak Spanish) ○ Spanish were cruel and made Native Americans work for them. Wealthy Spaniards owned Native Americans (or gave Native Americans protection in exchange for their service) ● English Protestants ● Western Christendom ○ ● Roman Catholicism ● Protestantism ● Columbian Exchange ● Disease ○ Smallpox (Native Americans had no resistance), wiped out 80-90% of the Native American Population ● Food ○ Food that Europeans found in Americas they brought back to Europe ○ Led to an enhancement in European diet ○ Longer term impact was from Europe to Americas, things that weren’t native ■ Favored Eurasia over Americas ● Livestock ● Technology and the horse ○ From Europe to Mexico to the North of America ■ Lead to more mobility for nomads ■ Didn’t reach California until mid 1700s Lecture 4 - 9/30/16 - The Colonial Money Makers Terms ● Middle Atlantic colonies ● Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey ● New Netherland/New York ● Southern Colonies ● Virginia, Carolina, Maryland, Georgia ● Tidewater South ● Indentured Servants ● AFrican slave trade ● Cash crop farming ● Tobacco, rice, indigo ● The colonial economy ● William Penn ● Pennsylvania ● Society of Friends ● Broad Arrow Policy Notes ● First few meetings are about establishing the factors that led to the rapid growth of colonial North America and early US ● Next week is the preservation ● Territory was dense forest land when the Europeans colonized ○ Lumber became marketed on a worldwide basis. Attempted to tame the wilderness and use it (make them pay) ●
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- Fall '14
- Native Americans in the United States