-but the wealthy notable elite actually tightened its control and the old aristocracy retreated Only limited extension of the franchise took place, keeping the situation unstable in France. ©SarahStudyGuides
28 The Revolutions of 1848: New political ideologies combined with economic factors and romantic impulses to produce revolutions in nearly every major European country except Great Britain and Russia. Initially successful, soon they each failed. Causes of the revolutions of 1848 1) Spread of Romanticism and Nationalism -ideas of individualism 2) General economic crisis -bad harvests rise in food prices -misery and unemployement in cities 3) Socialist ideas -Karl Marx and The Communist Manifesto (1848) 4) Push towards universal male suffrage France Louis Philippe’s government collapsed -his “bourgeoisie monarchy” was still very corrupt -wouldn’t expand voting and refused reform -saw banquets as a threat—makes them illegal, and then banishes and arrests them - banquets : meetings were people discussed political reforms like universal male suffrage -this angered workers Louis Philippe ruled France for 18 years (1830-1848) The National Guard overthrew the government -middle-class shopkeepers, skilled artisans, and unskilled working people all joined in this revolution -basically a militia ©SarahStudyGuides
29 France’s First Republic -this republic was the one created during the French revolution -people romanticized it -they wanted something like it again—a truly popular and democratic republic so that the common people (the peasants, artisans, and unskilled workers) could reform society France’s Second Republic -created a very liberal and radical constitution -everyone had the right to vote, slaves were freed, death penalty was abolished, 10-hour workday was established -satisfied radical workers who wanted everyone to vote -upset moderates who wanted more people to vote, but not every one The new government created national workshops -based on Blanc’s ideas of government-sponsored cooperative workshops for workers -socialist workshops -A lot of people tried to work at these workshops at first 1) You had to be a resident of Paris -All of the people who moved to Paris to join these workshops weren’t allowed to—very upset 2) They were very expensive -they were paying people to do nothing -so the government raised taxes *This satisfied nobody -new taxes upset the peasants and nobles -the moderates were upset by all of it -the awful conditions upset workers -the resident requirement upset people who moved to Paris to join Social class and political tensions among the revolutionary groups in Paris - Moderate, liberal republicans of the middle class —viewed universal male suffrage as the only concession, but strongly opposed any further radical social measures -Radical republicans and hard-pressed artisans—were committed to socialism and universal male suffrage and resented capitalists
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