Criminology Lecture Notes2

Power tools or kitchen tools if criminal has more of

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offender utilizes a car in order to commit a crime) (ex. Power tools or kitchen tools) . If criminal has more of these objects on hand, then more crimes will occur – if target has more, then crimes will not occur as much because they can defend themselves . Deals with the placement of objects . Direct contact predatory violations (crime) – physical contact is made between offender and target’s body or something victim possesses . There is a physical loss . Fraud is not a direct contact predatory violation . Crime rates dramatically increased throughout the 1960s . Elements of Direct-Contact Predatory Violations . Motivated Offenders . Cohen and Felson do not explain criminal motivation – why offenders may be motivated to commit an offense . At first, they said that maybe criminals cannot control themselves as they lack self control, but a lack of self-control is not a motivation . Anyone may commit an offense because it is not a matter of motivation but rather a matter of objects – criminal behavior is more dictated by any situation you may find yourselves – crime is a matter of situations and the way that social/physical situations are arranged . Suitable Targets . What increases crime is not an increase in people’s motivation, it is more an increase in criminal opportunity . Throughout 1960s, property crime rates increased because there was more stuff for people to steal and more homes were open for burglary
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. There was an increasing availability of consumer items and people had more money to buy consumer items . More people were setting up single person households – more objects distributed throughout the population which were targets suitable for theft . Increase in the portability of objects – objects are lighter-weight and easier to carry – more suitable for theft . In poor neighborhoods, some targets are more suitable – poor people more often carry cash with them; therefore, they are easier targets – don’t have enough money for bank accounts or good credit . There is more cash floating around in poor neighborhoods – money is a very suitable target . People’s bodies are now more suitable targets . Assault rates go down as you get older . Young people are more likely to be victimized because they are more likely to cross paths with motivated offenders – young people are out later at night; therefore, they are more suitable as a target and more likely to be victimized . Rape rates . Some of the highest rates of rape are found among women who are in school – due to an increase in availability – women in school are more likely to move from place to place alone, thus they are more susceptible to crime victimization – has to do with where they are at a particular place and particular time . Marital status . For men, if they are married, they are more unlikely to get assaulted because “she makes him stay home” – once they get divorced, their assault rates increase again . Absence of Capable Guardians . Police do not play the biggest role in crime control – most crime control is
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